Emergency powers of the authorities of the constituent units of the federation (states) in Russia, the USA and Brazil amid the spread of a new coronavirus infection

Available only in Russian

Price 150 rub.

Author: Alexander Merkulenko

DOI: 10.21128/1812-7126-2021-3-86-107

Keywords: competency of the constituent units of the Russian Federation, emergency powers of the constituent units of the Russian Federation, high alert regimes, powers of the constituent units of the Russian Federation, regional emergency regimes, state competence, state emergency powers

Abstract

Due to the new coronavirus pandemic, high alert regimes were introduced across the Russian Federation in spring 2020. These emergency regimes were established exclusively by the state bodies of the Russian Federation’s constituent units – federal authorities did not introduce their own emergency regimes. This decentralized strategy of fighting the pandemic was also introduced by the USA and Brazil. Their states, without the sanction of the federal government, and in the case of Brazil, ignoring its bans, set emergency restrictions similar to those in Russia. The legal regulation of emergency regimes existed before 2020, when constituent units of the federation (states) actively used their emergency powers. However, the regimes introduced during the fight against the pandemic were slightly different to previous ones. The restrictions on rights and freedoms within these regimes were so severe that not only their proportionality was questioned, but there were also doubts as to whether the regional level of the government had the authority to establish such strict restrictions. In addition, the pandemic exposed old problems and revealed new shortcomings in the legal regulation of emergency regimes: lack of control over the realization of the emergency regime by legislative (representative) authorities, and gaps in legislative regulation – notably in the establishment of possible restrictions and of a mechanism for scrutinizing their proportionality. All this raised questions about the proportionality of the established restrictions. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation resolved a very insignificant amount of the problems. While the United States and Brazil faced similar issues, the practice of scrutinizing implemented restrictions in these countries was more common. This article takes domestic and foreign experiences into account, while examining certain aspects of the establishment and the operation of regional emergency regimes.

About the author: Alexander Merkulenko – Postgraduate Student, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

Citation: Merkulenko A. (2021) Chrezvychaynye polnomochiya organov vlasti sub'ektov federatsii (shtatov) v Rossii, SShA i Brazilii v usloviyakh rasprostraneniya novoy koronavirusnoy infektsii [Emergency powers of the authorities of the constituent units of the federation (states) in Russia, the USA and Brazil amid the spread of a new coronavirus infection]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.30, no.3, pp.86–107. (In Russian).

References

Dolzhikov A.V. (2005) Ogranichenie osnovnykh prav zakonami sub'ektov Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Restriction on fundamental rights by the laws of the constituent units of the Russian Federation]. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, no.2, pp.14–16. (In Russian).
Dronova S.A. (2020) Ogranichenie konstitutsionnykh prav v usloviyakh epidemiologicheskikh potrya­seniy [Restriction on constitutional rights in conditions of epidemiological upheavals]. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, no.6, pp.69–77. (In Russian).
Ginsburg T., Versteeg M. (2020) The Bound Executive: Emergency Powers During the Pandemic: Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper no.2020-52, University of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No.747. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3608974 (accessed: 29.05.2021).
Karpov D.V. (2001) Kriterii pravomernosti ogranicheniya prav i svobod cheloveka [Criteria for the legality of restrictions on human rights and freedoms]. In: Prava cheloveka i grazhdanina: zakonodatel'stvo i praktika: Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Human and citizen rights: legislation and practice: Proceedings of the scientific and practical conference], Krasnodar: Kubanskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet, pp.133–142. (In Russian).
Mal'ko A.V. (1993) Pravovye ogranicheniya: ot otraslevogo ponimaniya k teoreticheskomu [Legal limitations from industry to theoretical understanding]. Pravovedenie, no.5, pp.16–23. (In Russian).
(2021) Ob'ektivno neobkhodimo v ekstraordinarnoy situatsii: kommentariy k Postanovleniyu Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossii po delu o vozmozhnosti vvedeniya rezhima samoizolyatsii grazhdan v period epidemii COVID-2019 [Objectively necessary in an extraordinary situation: comments on the Decree of the Constitutional Court of Russia on the case of the possibility of introducing a regime of self-isolation of citizens during the COVID-2019 epidemic]. Institut prava i publichnoy politiki, 25 January. Available at: https://academia.ilpp.ru/kommentarii-k-postanovleniyu-konstitutsionnogo-suda-rossii-po-delu-o-vozmozhnosti-vvedeniya-rezhima-samoizolyatsii-grazhdan-v-period-pidemii-covid-2019 (accessed: 29.05.2021). (In Russian).
Pchelintsev S.V. (2006) Ogranicheniya prav i svobod grazhdan v usloviyakh osobykh pravovykh rezhimov: metodologiya, teoriya, praktika: Dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk [Restrictions on the rights and freedoms of citizens in the context of special legal regimes: methodology, theory, practice: Dr. in law sci. diss.], Moscow. (In Russian).
Petrov S.P., Petrova Yu.A., Polit O.I. (2013) Kommentariy k Zakonu RF ot 14 maya 1993 goda №4979-1 “O veterinarii” (postateynyy) [Commentary on the Law of the Russian Federation of May 14, 1993 No.4979-1 “On Veterinary Medicine” (itemized)]. SPS “Konsul'tantPlyus”. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed: 29.05.2021). (In Russian).
Posner Е.A., Vermeule A. (2007) Terror in The Balance: Security, Liberty, and the Courts, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Posner E. (2020) You Can Sue to Stop Lockdowns, But You Can't Sue to Get Them. That's Dangerous. The Washington Post, 3 May. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/lockdown-legal-challenges-constitution/2020/05/03/389af052-8aff-11ea-9dfd-990f9dcc71fc_story.html (accessed: 29.05.2021).
Rushaylo V.B. (2003) Spetsial'nye administrativno-pravovye rezhimy v sfere obespecheniya obshchestvennoy bezopasnosti [Special administrative and legal regimes in the field of ensuring public safety], Moscow: Kompaniya Sputnik plyus. (In Russian).
Sajó A., Uitz R. (2021) Konstitutsiya svobody: vvedenie v yuridicheskiy konstitutsionalizm [The constitution of freedom: an introduction to legal constitutionalism], D.V.Sichinava, E.A.Zakharova (transl.), Moscow: Institut prava i publichnoy politiki. (In Russian).
Shmidt T.N. (2014) Chrezvychaynoe pravovoe regulirovanie: obshcheteoreticheskoe issledovanie: Dis … kand. yurid. nauk [Emergency legal regulation: a general theoretical study: Cand. in law sci. diss.], Barnaul. (In Russian).
Strashun B.A. (ed.) (2006) Konstitutsionnoe (gosudarstvennoe) pravo zarubezhnykh stran. Osobennaya chast': uchebnik dlya vuzov [Constitutional (state) law of foreign countries. Special part: a textbook for universities], Moscow: Norma. (In Russian).
Varlamova N. (2020) Pandemiya COVID-19 kak vyzov konstitutsionnomu pravoporyadku [COVID-19 pandemic as a challenge to constitutional legal order]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.29, no.6, pp.17–30. (In Russian).
Vishnyakov V.G. (ed.) (2005) Pravovoe obespechenie bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Legal support of the security of the Russian Federation], Moscow: Yuridicheskaya literatura. (In Russian).
Yushkov M. (2021) Vlasti Yakutii zamenili slovo “obyazatel'naya” v soobshenii o vaktsinatsii [Yakutia' authorities have replaced the word “compulsory” in the message on vaccination]. RBK, 25 May. Available at: https://www.rbc.ru/politics/25/05/2021/60ad03959a79477e3625c43e (accessed: 29.05.2021). (In Russian).
Ziborov O.V. (2002) Institut voennogo polozheniya po rossiyskomu pravu (istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie): Dis. … kand. yurid. nauk [Institute of martial law in Russian law (historical and legal research): Cand. in law sci. diss.], Moscow. (In Russian).

Понравился материал?

We will be happy with a small, if possible, monthly help, which gives us confidence in the future and the ability to plan our activities. Поддержите деятельность Института!