Available only in Russian
Author: Mikhail Mityukov
Keywords: candidates for judges, election of the heads of the court, political struggle over the process of replenishing the court, The Constitutional Court of 1993–1995, the procedure for appointing constitutional judges
The modernisation of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in 1993–2000 was a result of the political and legal transformations of the 1990s, and the period of its procedural inaction for a year and a half was by no means time lost. It was used to prepare a new law for the Constitutional Court, which was largely prepared by the Court itself and accompanied by disputes with the State Legal Department of the Russian Federation’s president and various factions of the State Duma of the first assembly (LDPR, KPRF). Discussions were primarily held about the status of the Constitutional Court, such as the Court’s term in office, as well as its number of members, which greatly determined the effectiveness of the future “second” Constitutional Court of the 1993–1995 model and its internal structure. Filling the Constitutional Court’s six vacant seats as defined by the 1993 Constitution was not carried out by electing judges as in the previous legislation, but instead by appointing them to each of the chambers on the suggestion of the head of state. This predetermined an acute political struggle, primarily to establish the procedure for selecting candidates for judicial positions and determining the role of the president in each chamber of the Federal Assembly, the State Duma factions, legal institutions, and scientific communities of legal scholars. The independent “game” of each of these elements delayed the process of starting a functioning Constitutional Court for many months, but the democratic procedure for electing the courts’ heads allowed the issue to resolve without delay.
About the author: Mikhail Mityukov – Mikhail Mityukov
Candidate of Legal Sciences, Professor; Professor of the Constitutional and Municipal Law Department, Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow, Russia.
Citation: Mityukov M. (2021) Doformirovanie sostava Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossii v 1994–1995 godakh (k istorii voprosa i konstitutsionno-pravovye aspekty) [The formation of the composition of the Constitutional Court of Russia in 1994–1995 (on the history of the issue and constitutional and legal aspects). Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.30, no.4, pp.155–171. (In Russian).
(1994) Gosudarstvennaya Duma: stenogramma zasedaniy. Vesennyaya sessiya. T.1: 11–21 yanvarya 1994 g. [The State Duma: transcript of the meetings. Spring session. Vol.1: 11–21 January 1994], Moscow: Respublika. (In Russian).
Ametistov A.M. (1995) Ni odna konstitutsiya ne stoit chelovecheskoy krovi: Slushala S.Orlova. [No constitution is worth human blood: As told to S.Orlova]. Novaya ezhednevnaya gazeta, no.14, 25 January. (In Russian).
Biktagirov R. (1994) Spetsial'no podygryvat' regionam ya ne nameren: Besedovala O.Burkaleva [I do not intend to play along with the regions specifically: Interviewed by O.Burkaleva]. Rossiyskie vesti, no.215, 12 November. (In Russian).
Borovik T. (1994) Prezident vycherknul Zor'kina i Luchina iz sostava Konstitutsionnogo Suda [The President removed Zorkin and Luchin from the Constitutional Court]. Megapolis-ekspress, no.1, p.13. (In Russian).
Boskholov S.S. (1995) Slovo k izbiratelyu [A word to the voter], Moscow: Agrokonsalt. (In Russian).
Boykov A.D. (1997) Tret'ya vlast' v Rossii. Ocherki o pravosudii, zakonnosti i sudebnoy reforme 1990–1996 gg. [The third power in Russia. Essays on justice, legality and judicial reform 1990–1996], Moscow: Naucno-issledovatel'skiy institut problem ukrepleniya zakonnosti i pravoporyadka. (In Russian).
Danilov Yu. (1994) Ya vsegda khotel byt' sud'ey: beseda s kandidatom v sud'i Konstitutsionnogo Suda [I always wanted to be a judge: a conversation with a judicial candidate for the Constitutional Court]. Rossiyskie vesti, no.215, 12 November. (In Russian).
Dikun E. (1994) Poka sud'ya ne sudit, on mozhet zanyat'sya politikoy: beseda s V.D.Zor'kinym. [When the judge is not judging, he can go into politics: a conversation with V.D.Zorkin]. Obshchaya gazeta, no.12, 29 March. (In Russian).
Dubrovina A. (1994) Sud'i khodyat spiskami: prezident predlagaet sudey. Slovo — za Sovetom Federatsii [Judges go by lists: The President suggests judges. The Federation Council has the floor]. Novoe vremya, no.43, pp.12–13. (In Russian).
Fedorov N. (1994) Adres konstitutsionnogo suda — Chuvashiya?: Pis'mo Prezidenta Chuvashskoy Respubliki Prezidentu RF [The address of the Constitutional Court is Chuvashia?: Letter from the President of the Chuvash Republic to the President of the Russian Federation]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, no.247, 17 December. (In Russian).
Feofanov Yu. (1993) Kto budet predsedatelem Konstitutsionnogo Suda [Who will be the chairman of the Constitutional Court]. Izvestiya, no.211, 11 November. (In Russian).
Feofanov Yu. (1994) Stanut li Cheboksary stolitsey rossiyskogo pravosudiya? [Will Cheboksary become the capital of Russian justice?]. Izvestiya, no.206, 25 October. (In Russian).
Guliev V. (1994) Cheboksary kak novyy Karlsrue [Cheboksary as a new Karlsruhe]. Rossiyskie vesti, no.205, 16 November. (In Russian).
Guliev V. (1994) V Konstitutsionnom Sude ostayutsya vakantnymi eshche dva mesta [There are two more seats remaining in the Constitutional Court]. Rossiyskie vesti, no.221, 18 November. (In Russian).
Kalmykov Yu. (1994) Osvobodit'sya ot pravovogo nigilizma: Besedoval O.Dmitriev [Get out from legal nihilism: Interviewed by O.Dmitriev]. Rossiyskie vesti, no.215, 12 November. (In Russian).
Kozyreva A. (1994) Marafon po vyboram sudey [Marathon for the election of judges]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, no.238, 7 December. (In Russian).
Krasnov M.A. (1994) Dostoinstvo zashchishchaetsya tol'ko cherez pravo: beseda s kandidatom v sud'i Konstitutsionnogo Suda [Dignity is protected only through the right: a conversation with a candidate for a judge of the Constitutional Court]. Rossiyskie vesti, no.215, 12 November. (In Russian).
Krest'yaninov E. (1994) Pochemu ne rabotaet Konstitutsionnyy Sud. Khotya s 25 oktyabrya sego goda on pravomochen deystvovat' [Why the Constitutional Court does not work. Although since October 25 of this year it has the right to act]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, no.247, 27 December. (In Russian).
Kryazhkov V.A., Lazarev L.V. (1998) Konstitutsionnaya yustitsiya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: uchebnoe posobie [Constitutional justice in the Russian Federation: a study guide], Moscow: BEK. (In Russian).
Kutsylo V. (1995) I budet teper' komu vsekh rassudit'… [And now there will be someone to judge everyone…]. Kommersant, no.21, 8 February. (In Russian).
Loginova N. (1994) Za krasivye glaza: tak vybirali kandidatov v chleny Konstitutsionnogo Suda [For good looks: this is how candidates for members of the Constitutional Court were chosen]. Moskovskie novosti, no.13, pp.1А–14А. (In Russian).
Luchin V. (1994) Konstitutsionnyy sud vernul opal'nogo sud'yu [The Constitutional Court returns the disgraced judge]. Megapolis-ekspress, no.3, 9 January. (In Russian).
Mityukov M.A. (1994) Interv'yu [The interview]. Abakan, no.168–169, 31 October. (In Russian).
Mityukov M.A. (1994) O Konstitutsionnom Sude [About the Constitutional Court]. Kommersant, no.199, 20 October. (In Russian).
Mityukov M.A. (2014) Shtrikhi k istorii Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossii [Sketches to the history of the Constitutional Court of Russia], Moscow: Yurlitinform. (In Russian).
Mityukov M.A. (2014) V Gosudarstvennoy Dume: vystupleniya, stat'i, interv'yu, dokumenty, dnevnikovye zapisi [In the State Duma: speeches, articles, interviews, documents, diary entries], Moscow: Prospekt. (In Russian).
Murav'eva I. (1994) Chleny KS rvutsya k rabote [Members of the Constitutional Court are eager to work]. Vek, no.45, 2–8 December. (In Russian).
Orlov D. (1994) “Troyki” mogut byt' i soglasitel'nye [“Threesomes” can also be consensual]. Rossiyskie vesti, no.221, 17 December. (In Russian).
Orlov D. (1994) Prezident predstavil kandidatov v konstitutsionnye sud'i [The President introduced candidates for constitutional judges]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, no.200, 21 October. (In Russian).
Ostapchuk A. (1995) Konstitutsionnyy Sud vozglavil samyy staryy iz sudey [The Constitutional Court was headed by the oldest of the judges]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, no.26, 17 March. (In Russian).
Ostapchuk A. (1993) Pechal'nyy konets eshche odnogo demokraticheskogo instituta Rossii [The sad end of another democratic institution in Russia]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, no.232, 3 December. (In Russian).
Ostapchuk A. (1994) Valeriyu Zor'kinu i Viktoru Luchinu vozvrashcheny polnomochiya sudey Konstitutsionnogo Suda [The powers of judges of the Constitutional Court were returned to Valery Zorkin and Viktor Luchin]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, no.16, 27 January. (In Russian).
Popov D. (1994) Konstitutsionnyy sud mozhet i dvukh generalov prokormit' [The Constitutional Court can feed two generals]. Kommersant, no.229, 2 December. (In Russian).
Rudnev V. (1994) Sud'i vybirayut sudey [Judges choose judges]. Izvestiya, no.56 (24163), 25 March. (In Russian).
Rybkin I.P. (1995) Konchilos' vremya, kogda mozhno bylo otsidet'sya [The time when it was possible to sit out is over]. Vek, no.15, 14–20 April. (In Russian).
Savel'ev A. (1994) “Sudebnaya sluzhba est' sluzhenie…” Beseda s sud'ey Konstitutsionnogo Suda Tamaroy Morshchakovoy ob urokakh Anatoliya Koni [“The judicial service is a service…” A conversation with the judge of the Constitutional Court Tamara Morshakova about the lessons of Anatoly Koni]. Segodnya, no.206, 26 October. (In Russian).
Smirnova N. (1994) KS: trebuyutsya shest' apolitichnykh [The Constitutional Court: requires six apolitical]. Delovoy mir, no.59, 2 April. (In Russian).
Solov'ev E. (1994) Vneocherednoy istoricheskiy: zametki delegata III Vserossiyskogo s'ezda sudey [Extraordinary historical: notes of a delegate of the III All-Russian Congress of Judges]. Yuridicheskiy vestnik, no.8, pp.1–16. (In Russian).
Sorokina K. (1994) Rozhdenie po chastyam. S kakogo zakhoda Sovetu Federatsii vse-taki udastsya sformirovat' Konstitutsionnyy sud? [Birth in parts. At what stage will the Federation Council finally be able to form a Constitutional Court?]. Novoe vremya, no.48, pp.10–11. (In Russian).
Volodin S. (1994) Budet li uluchshennym “vtoroe izdanie” Konstitutsionnogo Suda? [Will the “second edition” of the Constitutional Court be improved?]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, no.100, 31 April. (In Russian).
Zapodinskaya E. (1994) Sud'i, zanimayushchiesya politikoy, budut uvoleny kollegami: sovmestnoe zasedanie trekh sudov [Judges involved in politics will be dismissed by colleagues: joint session of the three courts]. Kommersant, no.98, 31 May. (In Russian).