Direct Effect of the Constitution: Specific Features of the Russian Model from a Comparative Perspective

Price 150 rub.

Author: Elena Gritsenko

DOI: 10.21128/1812-7126-2021-5-76-117

Keywords: application of the Constitution by courts, constitutional review, direct application of constitutional rights, direct effect of the Constitution, horizontal application of constitutional rights

Abstract

The differences in the interpretation of the direct effect of a constitution are mainly caused by the peculiarities of understanding the essence of the constitution and the rule of law, the relation between the national, supranational and international law in a legal system, the specifics of the perceived constitutional concept of basic rights, the limits of private autonomy and the action of constitutional rights in public and private relations. Furthermore, a model of constitutional review and the national judicial system play a key part. The American approach, based on the distinction between common law and constitutional law, creates difficulties in the constitutionalization of the common law. These problems, along with the peculiarities of American federalism, are reflected in the state action doctrine as a tool outlining the mechanisms and limits of constitutional rights and the state’s duties to protect them. However, the solution of the question about the horizontal application of the Constitution depends, rather, not on objective criteria, but the discretion of the court. A different model of the direct action of the Constitution and basic rights has been developed in the German legal system. The Federal Constitutional Court of Germany opened the way for the constitutionalization of sectoral legislation, as well as for the recognition of the mediated horizontal action of constitutional rights in private relations. Post-socialist states developing within the continental legal family, mostly without any reservations, accepted the idea of direct action of the Constitution and fundamental rights in vertical and horizontal relations. This is largely due to the socialist tradition: the Constitution is not perceived as an act addressed to the state, but is regarded as an act addressed to the whole society. In this regard, the current Russian Constitution enshrines the universal obligation for public and private actors to observe the Constitution and allows it to be applied in private relations. The principle of the direct effect requires the court to detect possible conflicts and solve them, using available constitutional means. This mechanism of courts applying the Constitution still needs fine-tuning. In this regard, the issue of ensuring that courts apply the Constitution continues to be a challenge for Russia.

About the author: Elena Gritsenko – Doctor of Science in Law, Professor, Department of Constitutional Law, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

The article was prepared within the framework of scientific Project No. 16-03-00465-OGN supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (RFBR).

Citation: Gritsenko E. (2021) Direct Effect of the Constitution: Specific Features of the Russian Model from a Comparative Perspective. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 76–117.

References

(2010) Developments in the Law — State Action and the Public/Private Distinction. Harvard Law Review, vol.123, no.5, pp.1248–1314.
Abzeev B.S. (2007) Lichnost’ i gosudarstvo v Rossii: vzaimnaya otvetstvennost’ i konstitutsi­onnye obyazannosti [Personality and the state in Russia: mutual responsibility and constitutional duties], Moscow : Norma.
Beatty D. (1995) Constitutional Law in Theory and Practice, Toronto : University of Toronto Press.
Belling D.W., Herold A., Kneis M. (2014) Die Wirkung der Grundrechte und Grundfreiheiten. In: Badó A., Belling D.W. et al. (eds.) Rechtsentwicklungen aus europäischer Perspektive in 21. Jahrhundert, Potsdam : Universität Potsdam, pp.53–112.
Belov S.A. (2014) Neposredstvennoe primenenie sudami Kostitutsii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Direct application by courts of the Constitution in the Russian Federation]. Gosudarstvo i parvo, no.1, pp.45–55.
Berger A. (2014) Sravnitel’no-pravovoy analiz deystviya konstitutsionnykh prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v chastnom prave Germanii i Rossii [Comparative legal analysis of the effect of constitutional rights and freedoms of the person and citizen in private law in Germany and Russia]. Sravnitel‘noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.23, no.1, pp.100–119.
Berka W. (1999) Die Grundrechte: Grundfreiheiten und Menschenrechte in Österreich. Wien : Springer.
Black Ch.L., Jr. (1967–1968) The Supreme Court 1966 Term — Foreword: “State action”, Equal Protection, and California’s Proposition 14. Harvard Law Review, vol.81, pp.69–109.
Bocharova S. (2013) Priskorbie i nekotoraya ozabochennost’ [Regret and a certain degree of concern]. Lenta.ru, 4 April. Available at: http://lenta.ru/articles/2013/04/04/konst (accessed: 25.08.2021).
Bondar’ N., Dzhagaryan А. (2016) Pryamoe deystvie Konstitutsii: generatsiya i garantirovanie konstitutsionnym pravosudiem [The direct application of the Constitution: the making and providing guarantees by constitutional justice]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.25, no.3, pp.52–78.
Burnham W. (2006) Pravovaya sistema SShA [Introduction to the law and legal system of the United States], (A. V. Aleksandrov et al., transl.), 3rd ed., Moscow : Novaya Yustitsiya.
Chemerinsky E. (2011) Constitutional Law: Principles and Policies, 4th ed., New York : Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
Cherepanov V.A. (2017) O pryamom deystvii Konstitutsii i resheniy Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii: problemnye voprosy i poisk resheniya [On a direct application of the Constitution and judgments of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation: problems and seeking of their solution]. Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, no.11, pp.15–24.
Chirwa D.M. (2006) The Horizontal Application of Constitutional Rights in a Comparative Perspective. Law, Democracy and Development, vol.10, no.2, pp.21–48.
Dürig G. (1956) Grundrechte und Zivilrechtsprechung. In: Maunz T. (ed.) Vom Bonner Grundgesetz zur gesamtdeutschen Verfassung: Festschrift zum 75. Geburtstag von Hans Nawiasky, München : Isar, pp.157–190.
Ershov V. (1998) Pryamoe primenenie Konstitutsii RF: ot Resheniya Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF do Postanovleniya Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF [The direct application of the Constitution of the Russian Federation: from the Decision of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation to the Judgement of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation]. Available at: https://www.lawmix.ru/comm/7873 (accessed: 25.08.2021).
Gadzhiev G.A. (1995) Neposredstvennoe primenenie sudami konstitutsionnykh norm [Direct application of the constitutional norms by courts]. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, no.12, pp.24–27.
Gritsenko E. (2011) Predely konstitutsionno-sudebnogo normotvorchestva [Limits of law-making by the constitutional courts]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.20, no.5, pp.107–130.
Gritsenko E.V. (2011) Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii: problemy pryamogo deistviya [The Constitution of the Russian Federation: the direct effect]. Rossiyskoe pravo: obrazovanie, praktika, nauka, no.1, pp.29–42.
Gritsenko E.V. (2015) Formirovanie doktriny pryamogo deystviya Konstitutsii v rossiyskom konstitutsionnom prave [Creating a Constitution’s direct action doctrine in the Russian constitutional law]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, no.6, pp.5–18.
Hengstschläger J., Leeb D. (2012) Grundrechte, Wien : Manzsche Verlags- und Universitätsbuchhandlung.
Hogg P.W. (1987) The Charter of Rights and American Theories of Interpretation. Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, vol.25, no.1, pp.87–113.
Holzinger G., Kommenda B. (2013) Verfassung kompakt: meine Grundrechte und mein Rechtsschutz. Wegweiser durch die österreichische Verfassung, 2nd ed. Wien : Linde.
Hufen F. (2016) Staatsrecht II. Grundrechte, 5th ed., München : C.H.Beck.
Kelsen H. (1930) Die Entwicklung des Staatsrechts in Österreich seit dem Jahre 1918. In: Anschütz G., Thoma R. et al. (eds.) Handbuch des deutschen Staatsrechts. Bd. I, Tübingen : J.C.B.Mohr, pp.147–165.
Kennedy D. (2006) Three Globalizations of Law and Legal Thought: 1850–2000. In: Trubek D.M., Santos A. (eds.) The New Law and Economic Development: A Critical Appraisal, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, pp.19–72.
Khakzadeh-Leibel L. (2011) Die Grundrechte in der Judikatur des Obersten Gerichtshofs, Wien : Springer.
Kingreen T., Poscher R. (2017) Grundrechte. Staatsrecht II, 33rd ed., Heidelberg : C.F.Müller.
Kommers D.P., Miller R.A. (2012) The Constitutional Jurisprudence of the Federal Republic of Germany, 3rd ed., Durham ; London : Duke University Press.
Lábady T. (2000) Alkotmányjogi hatások a készülő Ptk. szabályaira. Polgari jogi kodifikáció, no.2, pp.13–19. Available at: http://ptk2013.hu/polgari-jogi-kodifikacio/labady-tamas-alkotmanyjogi-hatasok-a-keszulo-ptk-szabalyaira-pjk-20002-13-19-o/780 (accessed: 25.08.2021).
Lewan K.M. (1968) The Significance of Constitutional Rights for Private Law: Theory and Practice in West Germany. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol.17, no.3, pp.571–601.
Manssen G. (2011) Staatsrecht II. Grundrechte, 8th ed. München : C.H.Beck.
Marshall W.P. (1985) Diluting Constitutional Rights: Rethinking “Rethinking State Action”. Northwestern University Law Review, vol.80, pp.558–570.
Mathews J. (2017) State Action Doctrine and the Logic of Constitutional Containment. University of Illinois Law Review, no.2, pp.655–679.
Mayer H., Kucsko-Stadlmayer G., Stöger K., Walter R. (2015) Grundriss des österreichischen Bundesverfassungsrechts, 11th ed. Wien : Manzsche Verlags- und Universitätsbuchhandlung.
Nipperdey H.C. (1962) Grundrechte und Privatrecht. In: Nipperdey H.C. (ed.) Festschrift für Erich Molitor zum 75. Geburtstag: 3 Oktober 1961, München ; Berlin : C.H.Beck, pp.17–33.
Pieroth B., Schlink B. (2012) Staatsrecht II. Grundrechte, 28th ed., Heidelberg : C.F.Müller.
Pöschl M. (2014) Gleichheitsrechte. In: Merten D., Papier H.-J. et al. (eds.) Handbuch der Grundrechte in Deutschland und Europa. Bd. VII/1: Grundrechte in Österreich, 2nd ed. Heidelberg : C.F.Müller, pp.539–541.
Quint P.E. (1989) Free Speech and Private Law in German Constitutional Theory. Maryland Law Review, vol.48, no.2, pp.247–349.
Rosenzweig W. (1978) Bedeutung der Grundrechte in Österreich / Bericht für die IV. Konferenz der Europäischen Verfassungsgerichte, 1978 in Wien. Europäische Grundrechte-Zeitschrift, pp.467–474.
Safonov V.N. (2017) Kontseptsiya “interpretivisma” v deyatel’nosti Verkhovnogo suda SShA [Interpretivism concept in the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court of the USA]. Vestnik Rossiy­skogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya Yuridicheskie nauki, no.21, pp.9–27.
Schäffer H. (1971) Verfassungsinterpretation in Österreich: eine kritische Bestandsaufnahme, Wien ; New York : Springer.
Schlaich K., Korioth S. (2010) Das Bundesverfassungsgericht: Stellung, Verfahren, Entscheidungen, 8th ed., München : C.H.Beck.
Schmahl St., Jung F. (2013) Horizontale Drittwirkung der Warenfreizügigkeit? Neue Zeitschrift für Verwaltungsrecht, vol.10, pp.607–612.
Schmidt-Preuß M. (2005) Kollidierende Privatinteressen im Verwaltungsrecht: Das subjektive öffentliche Recht im multipolarem Verwaltungsverhältnis, 2nd ed., Berlin : Duncker & Humblot.
Starck С. (2010) Kommentar zum Art.1 Abs.3. In: Mangoldt H., Klein F., Starck C. Kommentar zum Grundgesetz: GG. Bd.1, 6th ed., München : Franz Vahlen, pp.157.
Taeva N.E. (2015) Normy konstitutsionnogo prava v sisteme pravovogo regulirovaniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii : monografiya [Norms of constitutional law in the system of legal regulation of the Russian Federation: a monograph], Moscow : Prospekt.
Umnova (Konyukhova) I.A., Aleshkova I.A. (2016) Primenenie Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Federatsii sudami obshchey yurisdiktsii: aktual’nye voprosy teorii i praktiki : monografiya [Application of the Constitution of the Russian Federation by courts of general jurisdiction: current issues of theory and practice: a monograph], Moscow : Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet pravosudiya.
Von Grünigen M. (1965) Die österreichische Verfassungsnovelle über Staatsverträge vom 4. März 1964. Heidelberg Journal of International Law, vol.25, pp.76–99.
Zor'kin V.D. (ed.) (2011) Kommentariу k Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Review of the Constitution of the Russian Federation], 2nd ed., Moscow : Norma : Infra-M.