Constitutional practices in times “after liberty”

Available in Russian

Price 150 rub.

Author: Renáta Uitz

Keywords: “after liberty”; anti-pluralism; caesaristic plebiscitary leadership; executive arrogation; illiberal practices; intolerant tolerance

DOI: 10.21128/1812-7126-2021-6-34-69

Abstract

This chapter discusses the puzzle of illiberal practices as a constitutional problem. Illiberal rulers tend to gradually arrogate executive powers and secure their hold on elected office, while insulating themselves from the potential adverse legal consequences of their actions, in the manner of Caesaristic plebiscitary leadership. As a result, they restrict political competition and contestation, the plurality of the political community, and ultimately, individual liberty. The age of illiberal democracy is one “after liberty.” This chapter situates scholarship on illiberal constitutional practices in the broader context of scholarship on constitutionalism. Thereafter it takes stock of select illiberal constitutional practices affecting the electoral system, the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and the civil service. In closing, it explores the suppression of liberty and the chilling effect of illiberal practices that characterize times “after liberty”.

About the author: Renáta Uitz – Professor, Chair of the Comparative Constitutional Law Program, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary/Vienna, Austria.

Citation: Uitz R. (2021) Konstitutsionnye praktiki v epokhu “posle svobody” [Constitutional practices in times “after liberty”]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 34–69. (In Russian).

References

An-Naim A. (2017) Human Rights and Its Inherent Liberal Relativism. In: Abraham-Hamanoiel A., Freedman D., Khiabany G., Nash K., Petley J. (eds.) Liberalism in Neoliberal Times: Dimensions, Contradictions, Limits, London: Random House, pp.55–58.
Ball K., Webster W. (2019) Surveillance and Democracy in Europe, London; New York: Routledge.
Barber N.W. (2018) The Principles of Constitutionalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Barsotti V., Carozza P.G., Cartabia M., Simoncini A. (2016) Italian Constitutional Justice in Global Context, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Bar-Tal D. (2017) Self-Censorship as a Socio-Political-Psychological Phenomenon: Conception and Research. Political Psychology, vol.38, Suppl.1, pp.37–65.
Bátory Á., Svensson S. (2019) The Use and Abuse of Participatory Governance by Populist Governments. Policy & Politics, vol.47, no.2, pp.227–244.
Bauer M.W., Becker S. (2020) Democratic Backsliding, Populism, and Public Administration. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance, vol.3, no.1, pp.19–31.
Behrend J. (2016) Federal Intervention and Subnational Democratization in Argentina: A Comparative Perspective. In: Behrend J., Whitehead L. (eds.) Illiberal Practices: Territorial Variance within Large Federal Democracies, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp.89–119.
Behrend J., Whitehead L. (eds.) (2016) Illiberal Practices: Territorial Variance within Large Federal Democracies, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bell D.A. (2015) The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bell D.A., Jayasuriya K. (1995) Understanding Illiberal Democracy: A Framework. In: In: Bell D.A., Brown D., Jayasuriya K., Jones D.M. (eds.) Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia, New York: St. Martin’s Press, pp.1–16.
Bell J. (2016) Judiciaries within Europe: A Comparative Review, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bellamy R. (2021, forthcoming) Political Constitutionalism: A Genealogy. In: Cane P., Kumarasingham H. (eds.) The Cambridge Constitutional History of the United Kingdom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3666122 (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Bello Hutt D. (2021). The Deliberative Constitutionalism Debate and a Republican Way Forward. Jurisprudence, vol.12, no.1, pp.69–88.
Bermeo N. (2016) On Democratic Backsliding. Journal of Democracy, vol.27, no.1, pp.5–19.
Bickerton Ch.J., Invernizzi Accetti C. (2021) Technopopulism: The New Logic of Democratic Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blokker P. (2019) Populism as a Constitutional Project. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.17, no.2, pp.536–553.
Blokker P. (2019) Populist Counter-Constitutionalism, Conservatism, and Legal Fundamentalism. European Constitutional Law Review, vol.15, no.3, pp.519–543.
Blokker P. (2019) Varieties of Populist Constitutionalism: The Transnational Dimension. German Law Journal, vol.20, no.3, pp.332–350.
Böckenförde E.W. (2020) The Rise of the State as a Process of Secularization. In: Künkler M., Stein T. (eds.) Religion, Law and Democracy: Selected Writings, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.152–166.
Bourchier D.M. (2019) Two Decades of Ideological Contestation in Indonesia: From Democratic Cosmopolitanism to Religious Nationalism. Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol.49, no.5, pp.713–733.
Burkhardt F. (2017) The Institutionalization of Relative Advantage: Formal Institutions, Subconstitutional Presidential Powers, and the Rise of Authoritarian Politics in Russia 1994–2012. Post-Soviet Affairs, vol.33, no.6, pp.472–495.
Burkhardt F. (2020) Institutionalising Authoritarian Presidencies: Polymorphous Power and Russia’s Presidential Administration. Europe-Asia Studies, vol.73, no.3, pp.472–504.
Canovan M. (1999) Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political Studies, vol.47, no.1, pp.2–16.
Carothers T. (2002) The End of the Transition Paradigm. Journal of Democracy, vol.13, no.1, pp.5–21.
Casper G. (2007) Caesarism in Democratic Politics: Reflections on Max Weber. 13 March. Available at: https://fsi-live.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/evnts/media/Caesarism_in_Democratic_Politics-FSI.pdf (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Chambers S. (2019) Democracy and Constitutional Reform: Deliberative Versus Populist Constitutionalism. Philosophy & Social Criticism, vol.45, no.9–10, pp.1116–1131.
Cheeseman N., Klass B. (2018) How to Rig an Election, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Chen A.H.Y. (2016) The Achievement of Constitutionalism in Asia: Moving Beyond “Constitutions without Constitutionalism”. In: Chen A.H.Y. (ed.) Constitutionalism in Asia in the Early Twenty-First Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.1–31.
Conaghan C.M. (2006) The Immoral Economy of Fujimorismo. In: Carrió J.F. (ed.) The Fujimori Legacy: The Rise of Electoral Authoritarianism in Peru, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp.102–125.
Costa Pinto A., Finchelstein F. (2018) Authoritarian Corporatism in Europe and Latin America: Crossing Borders, London: Routledge.
Couldry N. (2017) Surveillance-Democracy. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, vol.14, no.2, pp.182–188.
Crabtree J. (2001) The Collapse of Fujimorismo: Authoritarianism and Its Limits. Bulletin of Latin American Research, vol.20, no.3, pp.287–303.
Croissant A., Haynes J. (2020) Democratic Regression in Asia: Introduction. Democratization, vol.28, no.1, pp.1–21.
Curato N., Fossati D. (2020) Authoritarian Innovations: Crafting Support for a Less Democratic Southeast Asia. Democratization, vol.27, no.6, pp.1006–1020.
De la Torre C. (2017) Populism in Latin America. In: Rovira Kaltwasser C., Taggart P., Espejo P.O., Ostiguy P. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Populism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.195–213.
De Rambures D. (2015) The China Development Model: Between the State and the Market, Houndsmill; London; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
De Vries B. (2021) What Does It Mean to Be “Illiberal”? Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, vol.50, no.1, pp.13–21.
Dixon R., Ginsburg T. (2017) The Forms and Limits of Constitutions as Political Insurance. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.15, no.4, pp.988–1012.
Drinóczi T., Bień-Kacala A. (2020) Illiberal Constitutionalism and the European Rule of Law. In: Drinóczi T., Bień-Kacala A. (eds.) Rule of Law, Common Values, and Illiberal Constitutionalism: Poland and Hungary within the European Union, London; New York: Routledge, pp.3–42.
Dyzenhaus D. (2020) Schmitten in the USA. Verfassungsblog, 4 April. Available at: https://verfassungsblog.de/schmitten-in-the-usa/ (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Ellner S. (2010) Chávez Pushes the Limits: Radicalization and Discontent in Venezuela. NACLA, 1 July. Available at: https://nacla.org/article/ch%C3%A1vez-pushes-limits-radicalization-and-discontent-venezuela (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Enyedi Zs. (2020) Right-Wing Authoritarian Innovations in Central and Eastern Europe. East European Politics, vol.36, no.3, pp.363–377.
Epstein R.A. (2018) The Wrong Rights, or: The Inescapable Weaknesses of Modern Liberal Constitutionalism. University of Chicago Law Review, vol.85, no.2, pp.403–423.
Fan H., Lee F.L.F. (2019) Judicial Visibility under Responsive Authoritarianism: A Study of the Live Broadcasting of Court Trials in China. Media, Culture and Society, vol.41, no.8, pp.1088–1106.
Feldstein S. (2021) Surveillance in the Illiberal State. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.351–364.
Festenstein M. (2018) Self-Censorship for Democrats. European Journal of Political Theory, vol.17, no.3, pp.324–342.
Finchelstein F. (2017) From Fascism to Populism in History, Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
Fournier T. (2019) From Rhetoric to Action, a Constitutional Analysis of Populism. German Law Journal, vol.20, no.3, pp.362–381.
Frick M.-L. (2021) Illiberalism and Human Rights. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.861–877.
García-Holgado B., Peréz-Linán A. (2021) The Weaknesses of Illiberal Regimes. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.925–938.
Gargarella R. (2020) Popular Constitutionalism. In: Sellers M., Kirste S. (eds.) Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy, Dordrecht: Springer. Available at: https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-94-007-6730-0_112-2 (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Gibson E.L. (2013) Boundary Control: Subnational Authoritarianism in Federal Democracies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ginsburg T. (2021) Asia’s Illiberal Governments. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.713–724.
Ginsburg T., Huq A.Z. (2018) How to Save a Constitutional Democracy, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Glasius M. (2018) What Authoritarianism Is… and Is Not: A Practice Perspective. International Affairs, vol.94, no.3, pp.515–533.
Glasius M. (2021) Illiberal Practices. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.339–350.
González-Jácome J. (2017) From Abusive Constitutionalism to a Multilayered Understanding of Constitutionalism: Lessons from Latin America. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.15, no.2, pp.447–468.
Greene A. (2021) Emergencies and Illiberalism. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.554–570.
Halmai G. (2021) Illiberal Constitutional Theories. Jus Politicum, vol.25, pp.135–152.
Havlík V. (2019) Technocratic Populism and Political Illiberalism in Central Europe. Problems of Post-Communism, vol.66, no.6, pp.369–384.
Heller H. (2015) Authoritarian Liberalism? European Law Journal, vol.21, no.3, pp.295–301.
Holmes S. (2021) The Antiliberal Idea. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.3–15.
Huq A.Z., Ginsburg T. (2020) Democracy without Democrats. Constitutional Studies, vol.6, no.1, pp.165–188.
Huq A.Z., Ginsburg T., Versteeg M. (2018) The Coming Demise of Liberal Constitutionalism? University of Chicago Law Review, vol.85, no.2, pp.239–255.
Issacharoff S. (2018) Democracy’s Deficits. University of Chicago Law Review, vol.85, no.2, pp.485–519.
Issacharoff S. (2018) Populism Versus Democratic Governance. In: Graber M.A., Levinson S., Tush­net M. (eds.) Constitutional Democracy in Crisis? Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.445–458.
Joerges Ch., Ghaleigh N.S. (eds.) (2003) Darker Legacies of Law in Europe: The Shadow of National Socialism and Fascism over Europe and Its Legal Traditions, Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Jones D.M., Jayasuriya K., Bell D.A., Brown D. (1995) Towards a Model of Illiberal Democracy. In: Bell D.A., Brown D., Jayasuriya K., Jones D.M. (eds.) Towards Illiberal Democracy in Pacific Asia, New York: St. Martin’s Press, pp.163–167.
Khaitan T. (2019) Executive Aggrandizement in Established Democracies: A Crisis of Liberal Democratic Constitutionalism. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.17, no.1, pp.342–356.
Khaitan T. (2020) Killing a Constitution with a Thousand Cuts: Executive Aggrandizement and Party-State Fusion in India. Law and Ethics of Human Rights, vol.14, no.1, pp.49–95.
Kirsch H., Welzel Ch.P. (2019) Democracy Misunderstood: Authoritarian Notions of Democracy around the Globe. Social Forces, vol.98, no.1, pp.59–92.
Kolesnikov A., Volkov D. (2020) Putin, Unlimited? Challenges to Russia’s Regime after the Reset of Presidential Terms. Carnegie Moscow Center, 4 December. Available at: https://carnegie.ru/commentary/83413 (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Körösényi A., Illés G., Gyulai A. (2020) The Orbán Regime: Plebiscitary Leader Democracy in the Making, London; New York: Routledge.
Kovács K., Scheppele K.L. (2019) Hungary’s Post-Socialist Administrative Law Regimes. In: Rose-Ackerman S., Lindseth P.L. (eds.) Comparative Administrative Law, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp.119–136.
Krastev I., Holmes S. (2020) The Light That Failed, London: Penguin Books.
Krygier M. (2011) Four Puzzles about the Rule of Law: What? What? Where? And Who Cares? In: Fleming J.E. (ed.) Getting to the Rule of Law, New York; London: New York University Press, pp.64–104.
Krygier M. (2021) Illiberalism and the Rule of Law. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.533–553.
Landau D. (2013) Abusive Constitutionalism. UC Davis Law Review, vol.47, no.1, pp.189–260.
Landau D. (2018) Populist Constitutions. The University of Chicago Law Review, vol.85, no.2, pp.521–543.
Landau D. (2020) Personalism and the Trajectories of Populist Constitutionalism. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, vol.16, pp.293–309.
Landau D. (2021) The Myth of the Illiberal Democratic Constitution. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.425–441.
Laruelle M. (2020) Russian Nationalism: Imaginaries, Doctrines, and Political Battlefields, London; New York: Routledge.
Law D., Lin Ch.-Ch. (2018) Constitutional Inertia and Regime Pluralism in Asia. In: Graber M.A., Levinson S., Tushnet M. (eds.) Constitutional Democracy in Crisis? Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, pp.423–442.
Lawson Ch. (2000) Mexico’s Unfinished Transition: Democratization and Authoritarian Enclaves in Mexico. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, vol.16, no.2, pp.267–287.
Le Sueur A. (2004) Developing Mechanisms for Judicial Accountability in the UK. Legal Studies, vol.24, no.1–2, pp.73–98.
Legutko R. (2016) Demons in Democracy: Totalitarian Temptations in Free Societies, New York: Encounter Books.
Levy R., Kong H.L., Orr G., King J. (eds.) (2018) The Cambridge Handbook of Deliberative Constitutionalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Loughlin M. (2003) The Idea of Public Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Loughlin M. (2010) Foundations of Public Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Loughlin M. (2017) Political Jurisprudence, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lührmann A., Lindberg S.I. (2019) A Third Wave of Autocratization Is Here: What Is New About It? Democratization, vol.26, no.7, pp.1095–1113.
MacKinnon R. (2011) Liberation Technology: China’s “Networked Authoritarianism”. Journal of Democracy, vol.22, no.2, pp.32–46.
Mafei R., Bustamante T., Peluso Neder Meyer E. (2021) From Antiestablishmentarism to Bolsonarism. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.778–795.
Mancini S., Palazzo N. (2021) The Body of the Nation: Illiberalism and Gender. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.403–420.
Marchal K., Shaw C.K.Y. (eds.) (2017) Carl Schmitt and Leo Strauss in the Chinese-Speaking World: Reorienting the Political, Lanham: Lexington Books.
Martínez Dalmau R. (2016) Democratic Constitutionalism and Constitutional Innovation in Ecuador: The 2008 Constitution. Latin American Perspectives, vol.43, no.1, pp.158–174.
McIlwain Ch.H. (1947) Constitutionalism: Ancient and Modern, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mechkova V., Lührmann A., Lindberg S.I. (2018) The Accountability Sequence: From De-Jure to De-Facto Constraints on Governments. Studies in Comparative International Development, vol.54, no.1, pp.40–70.
Mitchell R.M (2020) Chinese Receptions of Carl Schmitt since 1929. Penn State Journal of Law and International Affairs, vol.8, no.1, pp.181–263.
Morgenbesser L. (2020) The Rise of Sophisticated Authoritarianism in Southeast Asia. In: Aspinall E., Weiss M.L. (eds.) Elements in Politics and Society in Southeast Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University, pp.1–71.
Morijn J. (2020) A Trial That Wasn’t, an Impact That Was: #WithWoj in Warsaw, Take 2. Verfassungsblog, 28 January. Available at: https://verfassungsblog.de/a-trial-that-wasnt-an-impact-that-was/ (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Moustafa T., Ginsburg T. (2008) Introduction: The Functions of Courts in Authoritarian Politics. In: Moustafa T., Ginsburg T. (eds.) Rule by Law: The Politics of Courts in Authoritarian Regimes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.1–22.
Mudhoffir A.M., Hadiz V.R. (2021) Indonesia’s “Third-wave” Democratic Model? In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.753–764.
Müller J.-W. (2016) What is Populism? Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Müller J.-W. (2017) Populism and Constitutionalism. In: Rovira Kaltwasser C., Taggart P., Espejo P.O., Ostiguy P. (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Populism, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, pp.590–606.
Müller J.-W. (2018) Militant Democracy and Constitutional Identity. In: Jacobsohn G.J., Schor M. (eds.) Comparative Constitutional Theory, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp.415–435.
Mungiu-Pippidi A. (2018) Explaining Eastern Europe: Romania’s Italian-Style Anticorruption Populism. Journal of Democracy, vol.29, no.3, pp.104–116.
O’Donnell G. (1997) Delegative Democracy. Journal of Democracy. vol.5, no.1, pp.55–69.
Okoth-Ogendo H.W. (1993) Constitutions without Constitutionalism: Reflections on an African Paradox. In: Greenberg D., Katz S., Oliviero M.B., Wheatley S.C. (eds.) Constitutionalism and Democracy: Transitions In the Contemporary World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.65–82.
Pappas T. (2019) Populism and Liberal Democracy: A Comparative and Theoretical Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pappin G. (2021) Contemporary Christian Criticism of Illiberalism. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.43–59.
Peerenboom R. (2007) China Modernizes: A Threat to the West or a Model for the Rest? Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Peerenboom R. (ed.) (2012) Judicial Independence in China: Lessons for Global Rule of Law Promotion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pérez-Linán A., Schmidt N., Vario D. (2019) Presidential Hegemony and Democratic Backsliding in Latin America, 1925–2016. Democratization, vol.26, no.4, pp.606–625.
Peruzotti E. (2017) Populism as Democratization’s Nemesis: The Politics of Regime Hybridization. Chinese Political Science Review, vol.2, no.3, pp.314–327.
Peters B.G., Pierre J. (2019) Populism and Public Administration: Confronting the Administrative State. Administration and Society, vol.51, no.10, pp.1521–1545.
Polyakova A. et al. (2019) The Anatomy of Illiberal States: Assessing and Responding to Democratic Decline in Turkey and Central Europe. Foreign Policy at Brookings. Available at: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/illiberal-states-web.pdf (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Przeworski A. (1991) Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosanvallon P. (2008) Counter-Democracy: Politics in the Age of Distrust, A.Goldhammer (transl.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rovira Kaltwasser C. (2019) Dealing with Populism in Latin America. In: Weyland K., Madrid R.A. (eds.) When Democracy Trumps Populism: European and Latin American Lessons for the United States, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.35–59.
Rovira Kaltwasser C., Van Hauwaert S.M. (2020) The Populist Citizen: Empirical Evidence from Europe and Latin America. European Political Science Review, vol.12, no.1, pp.1–18.
Sadurski W. (2019) Poland’s Constitutional Breakdown, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sajó A. (2019) Individual Religious Liberty under Article 9 and Identity as Dignity. In: De Albuquerque P.P., Wojtyczek K. (eds.) Judicial Power in a Globalized World: Liber Amicorum Vincent de Gaetano, Cham: Springer, pp.475–499.
Sajó A. (2019) The Constitution of Illiberal Democracy as a Theory about Society. Polish Sociological Review, vol.208, no.4, pp.395–412.
Sajó A. (2021) Ruling by Cheating: Governance in Illiberal Democracy, London: Routledge.
Sajó A., Tuovinen J. (2018) The Rule of Law and Legitimacy in Emerging Illiberal Democracies. Osteuropa Recht, vol.64, no.4, pp.506–529.
Sajó A., Uitz R. (2017) The Constitution of Freedom: An Introduction to Legal Constitutionalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sartori G. (1962) Constitutionalism: A Preliminary Discussion. The American Political Science Review, vol.56, no.4, pp.853–864.
Scheppele K.L. (2007) The Migration of Anti-Constitutional Ideas: The Post-9/11 Globalization of Public Law and the International State of Emergency. In: Choudhry S. (ed.) The Migration of Constitutional Ideas, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.347–373.
Scheppele K.L. (2018) Autocratic Legalism. University of Chicago Law Review, vol.85, no.2, pp.545–583.
Scheppele K.L. (2019) The Opportunism of Populists and the Defense of Constitutional Liberalism. German Law Journal, vol.20, no.3, pp.314–331.
Schmitt C. (2008) Constitutional Theory, J.Seitzer (transl. and ed.), Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Schmitt C. (1986) The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy, E.Kennedy (transl.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Schmitt C. (1996) The Concept of the Political, G.Schwab (transl.), Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Schmitt C. (2005) Political Theology. Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty, G.Schwab (transl.), Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Schneiderman D. (2021) Parliaments in the Era of Illiberal Executives. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.466–485.
Scott A. (2018) (Plebiscitary) Leader Democracy: The Return of an Illusion? Thesis Eleven, vol.148, no.1, pp.3–20.
Skaaning S.-E. (2020) Waves of Autocratization and Democratization: A Critical Note on Conceptualization and Measurement. Democratization, vol.27, no.8, pp.1533–1542.
Smilova R. (2021) The Ideational Core of Democratic Illiberalism. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.177–202.
Somek A. (2003) Authoritarian Constitutionalism: Austrian Constitutional Doctrine 1933 to 1938 and Its Legacy. In: Joerges Ch., Ghaleigh N.S. (eds.) Darker Legacies of Law in Europe: The Shadow of National Socialism and Fascism over Europe and Its Legal Traditions, Oxford: Hart Publishing, pp.361–388.
Son B.N. (2016) Confucian Constitutionalism in East Asia, London: Routledge.
Stein T. (2018) The Böckenförde Dictum — On the Topicality of a Liberal Formula. Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, vol.7, no.1, pp.97–108.
Strittmatter K. (2019) We Have Been Harmonised: Life in China’s Surveillance State, London: Old Street Publishing.
Sutrisno B. (2020) Indonesians Remain Sensitive to Perceived Blasphemy: YLBHI. The Jakarta Post, 10 June. Available at: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/06/10/indonesians-remain-sensitive-to-perceived-blasphemy-ylbhi.html (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Svolik M.W. (2015) Which Democracies Will Last? Coups, Incumbent Takeovers, and the Dynamic of Democratic Consolidation. British Journal of Political Science, vol.45, no.4, pp.715–738.
Tang Y., Liu J.Z. (2019) Mass Publicity of Chinese Court Decisions: Market-Driven or Authoritarian Transparency? China Review, vol.19, no.2, pp.15–40.
Thaler R.H., Sunstein C.R. (2009) Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness, London; New York: Penguin Books.
Thio L.-A. (2012) Constitutionalism in Illiberal Polities. In: Rosenfeld M., Sajó A. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.133–152.
Thiruvengadam A. (2021) The Intertwining of Liberalism and Illiberalism in India. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.736–752.
Thompson D.F. (2010) Representing Future Generations: Political Presentism and Democratic Trusteeship. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, vol.13, no.1, pp.17–37.
Thornhill Ch.J. (2000) Carl Schmitt after the Deluge: A Review of the Recent Literature. History of European Ideas, vol.26, no.3–4, pp.225–240.
Tomkins A. (2005) Our Republican Constitution, Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Trochev A., Solomon P. (2018) Authoritarian Constitutionalism in Putin’s Russia: A Pragmatic Constitutional Court in a Dual State. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, vol.51, no.3, pp.201–214.
Tushnet M. (2014) Advanced Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Tushnet M. (2017) The Possibility of Illiberal Constitutionalism? Florida Law Review, vol.69, no.6, pp.1367–1384.
Tushnet M., Bugaric B. (2020) Populism and Constitutionalism: An Essay on Definitions and Their Implications. Available at: https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/42660123/Populism%20and%20Constitutionalism%20law%20review%20version.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Uitz R. (2012) Freedom of Religion and Churches: Archeology in a Constitutional Assembly. In: Tóth G.A. (ed.) Constitution for a Disunited Nation: On Hungary’s 2011 Fundamental Law, Budapest: Central European University Press, pp.197–234.
Uitz R. (2015) Can You Tell When an Illiberal Democracy Is in the Making? An Appeal to Comparative Constitutional Scholarship from Hungary. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.13, no.1, pp.279–300.
Uitz R. (2018) A Peek at the Soft Underbelly of Constitutions: The Politics of No-Confidence Votes. I-CONnect Blog, 28 February. Available at: http://www.iconnectblog.com/2018/02/a-peek-at-the-soft-underbelly-of-constitutions-the-politics-of-no-confidence-votes-i-connect-column/ (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Unger R.M. (1996) What Should Legal Analysis Become? London; New York: Verso Books.
Urbinati N. (2014) Democracy Disfigured: Opinion, Truth, and the People, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Urbinati N. (2015) A Revolt against Intermediary Bodies. Constellations, vol.22, no.4, pp.477–486.
Véliz C. (2020) Privacy is Power: Why and How You Should Take Back Control of Your Data, London: Bantam Press.
Vermeule A. (2020) Beyond Originalism. The Atlantic, 31 March, 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/03/common-good-constitutionalism/609037/ (accessed: 07.10.2021).
Wagrandl U. (2021) A Theory of Illiberal Democracy. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.94–118.
Waldner D., Lust E. (2018) Unwelcome Change: Coming to Terms with Democratic Backsliding. Annual Review of Political Science, vol.21, pp.93–113.
Waldo D. (1952) Development of Theory of Democratic Administration. American Political Science Review, vol.46, no.1, pp.81–103.
Waldron J. (2006) The Core of the Case Against Judicial Review. Yale Law Journal, vol.115, no.6, pp.1346–1406.
Weber M. (1994) Parliament and Government in Germany under a New Political Order. In: Lassman P. (ed.) Weber: Political Writings, R.Speirs (transl.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.130–271.
Weber M. (1994) The Profession and Vocation of Politics. In: Lassman P. (ed.) Weber: Political Writings, R.Speirs (transl.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.309–369.
Wyrzykowski M., Ziólkowski M. (2021) Illiberal Constitutionalism and the Judiciary. In: Sajó A., Uitz R., Holmes S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Illiberalism, New York: Routledge, pp.517–532.
Yam J. (2019) Hybrid Constitutionalism: The Politics of Constitutional Review in the Chinese Special Administrative Regions. International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.17, no.4, pp.1349–1354.
Zakaria F. (1997) The Rise of Illiberal Democracy. Foreign Affairs, vol.76, no.6, pp.22–43.
Zakaria F. (2003) The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad, New York: W.W.Norton & Company.
Zuboff Sh. (2019) The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power, London: Profile Books.