Separation of “digital” rights: new technologies, new opportunities, new restrictions

Available in Russian

Price 150.00 rub.

Author: Andrey Rumyantsev

Keywords: “the right to be forgotten”; freedom; information technology; social factors; subjective right; technological development

DOI: 10.21128/1812-7126-2021-6-70-105

Abstract

“Digital” rights have become a popular topic of the current legal research. Sometimes it appears that computer technology “acts” as an independent phenomenon, developing according to its own laws and beyond the control of humans. Yet, we should not forget that law as a regulatory framework still deals with relationships among human beings and not between humans and machines, or machines among themselves. The nature of these relations is changing, influenced by various factors, one of which is the level of technological development in general, and not only the one of information technologies (social factors). In this context, we can refer to the traditional concept of “material culture”, which denotes the totality of all artifacts, that is, objects created by humans. Social factors, whether related to technology or not, play on the same field and are therefore to some extent interchangeable. The set of social functions that must be performed in a society is definitive. When designing legal regime, it is necessary to understand which social function is influenced by a certain technological innovation, and to address not the use of a device or technological process itself, but rather this social aspect. The subject of social control remains the relationship among humans, changing to some extent due to the use of new technology. Legal control is possible in two main forms, differing in how compliance with the rules (imperatives) is managed: either in a centralized manner, by special public authorities, or by individual (private) actors. In the latter case, we talk about subjective rights. These (subjective) rights make it possible to distribute responsibility and initiative for the application of the rules of (objective) law between society and the State, which in certain cases is a preferable option compared to centralized regulatory regime.

About the author: Andrey Rumyantsev – Dr. jur., Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Comparative constitutional review”, Moscow.

Citation: Rumyantsev A. (2021) Obosoblenie “tsifrovykh” prav: novye tekhnologii, novye vozmozhnosti, novye ogranicheniya [Separation of “digital” rights: new technologies, new opportunities, new restrictions]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 70–105. (In Russian).

References

Berdyaev N.A. (1955) Istoki i smysl russkogo kommunizma [The origins and meaning of the Russian communism], Paris: YMCA-PRESS. (In Russian).
Blind K. a. o. (2019) The Impact of Open Source Software and Hardware on Technological Independence, Competitiveness and Innovation in the EU Economy: Final Study Report, Brussels.
Bondar' N.S. (2019) Informatsionno-tsifrovoe prostranstvo v konstitutsionnom izmerenii: iz praktiki Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Information and digital space in the constitutional dimension: from the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation]. Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, no.11, pp.25–42. (In Russian).
Engisch K. (1997) Einführung in das juristische Denken, 9th ed., Stuttgart; Berlin; Köln; Mainz: W.Kohlhammer.
Filipova I.A. (2019) Iskusstvennyy intellekt, trudovye otnosheniya i pravo: vliyanie i vzaimodeystvie [Artificial intelligence, labour relations and law: influence and interaction]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, no.11, pp.69–77. (In Russian).
Friedman L. (1993) Vvedenie v amerikanskoe pravo [Introduction into American law], Moscow: Progress-Univers. (In Russian).
Gehlen A. (2004) Der Mensch: Seine Natur und seine Stellung in der Welt, 14th ed., Wiebelsheim: Aula.
Heldt A.P. (2019) Upload-Filters: Bypassing Classical Concepts of Censorship? Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Electronic Commerce Law (JIPITEC), vol.10, pp.57–65. Available at: https://www.jipitec.eu/issues/jipitec-10-1-2019/4877 (accessed: 15.12.2021).
Helfer L.R. (2003) Human Rights and Intellectual Property: Conflict or Coexistence? Minnesota Intellectual Property Review, vol.5, no.1, pp.47–61.
Herrmann G. (1975) Fernsehen und Hörfunk in der Verfassung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: zugleich ein Beitrag zu weiteren allgemeinen verfassungsrechtlichen und kommunikationsrechtlichen Fragen, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).
Höffner E. (2010) Geschichte und Wesen des Urheberrechts, München: Verlag Europäische Wirtschaft.
Jellinek G. (1905) System der subjektiven öffentlichen Rechte, 2nd ed., Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).
Kapp E. (1877) Grundlinien einer Philosophie der Technik: Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Cultur aus neuen Gesichtspunkten, Braunschweig: George Westermann.
Krasnov M. (2016) Tolkovanie konstitutsii kak eyo fakticheskie popravki [Interpretations of the constitution as its actual amendments]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.25, no.1, pp.77–91. (In Russian).
Krasnov M. (2017) Izbiratel' kak “dolzhnost'” [The voter as a “function”]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.26, no.4, pp.13–29. (In Russian).
Lan V.I. (1975) SShA: Ot Ispano-amerikanskoy do Pervoy mirovoy voyny [USA: From Spanish-American War to World War I], Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).
Lloyd S.A. (2009) Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes: Cases in the Law of Nature, Cambridge a.o.: Cambridge University Press.
Macaulay T. (1898) The History of England, vol.III, London: Longmans, Green and Co.
Mavroforou A. a.o. (2014) Punitive Limb Amputation. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol.472, pp.3102–3106.
Nikitina E.E. (2020) Sistema prav i svobod v usloviyakh tekhnologicheskoy revolyutsii [The system of human rights and freedoms in the context of the technological revolution]. Zhurnal rossiysko­go prava, no.8, pp.27–44. (In Russian).
Nussbeger A. (2020) The European Court of Human Rights, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Obar J.A., Oeldorf-Hirsch A. (2018) The Biggest Lie on the Internet: Ignoring the Privacy Policies and Terms of Service Policies of Social Networking Services. Information, Communication & Society, pp.1–20.
Lazarev V.V (ed.) (1999) Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva [The general theory of law and State], 3rd ed., Moscow: Yurist. (In Russian).
Papier H.-J. (2008) Von der Volkszählung zur Speicherung von Verbindungsdaten: 25 Jahre informationelle Selbstbestimmung. Available at: https://datenschutz.hessen.de/sites/datenschutz.hessen.de/files/content-downloads/Von der Volkszählung zur Speicherung von Verbindungsdaten.pdf (accessed: 15.12.2021).
Parsons T. (1972) Das System moderner Gesellschaften, 6th ed., Weinheim; München: Juventa.
Parsons T. (1964) The Social System, New York: The Free Press.
Pellerin C. (2016) Constitutional Considerations of Happiness. The Columbia Undergraduate Law Review, 16 February. Available at: https://blogs.cuit.columbia.edu/culr/2016/02/16/constitutional-considerations-of-happiness/ (accessed: 15.12.2021).
Pieroth B., Schlink B. (2009) Staatsrecht II: Grundrechte, 25th ed., Heidelberg: C.F. Müller.
Rumyantsev A. (2016) Algoritmy prikhodyat na smenu mediamagnatam: kak setevye platformy vliyayut na kommunikatsiyu v obshchestve i pravo [Algorithms are replacing media moguls: the impact of social media on communication in the society and law]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.25, no.6, pp.49–69. (In Russian).
Rumyantsev A. (2019) Nemetskiy zakon o sotsial'nykh setyakh: normativnoe zakreplenie tekhnologicheskogo otstavaniya [The German law on social networks: regulatory fixing of technological straggling]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.28, no.3, pp.27–53. (In Russian).
Ruvinskiy R. (2021) Sistema sotsial'nogo kredita v Kitae: model' konstitutsionalizma dlya krizisnoy epokhi [The social credit system in China: a model of constitutionalism for the era of crises]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.30, no.3, pp.63–85. (In Russian).
Schneider P. (1963) Prinzipien der Verfassungsinterpretation. Veröffentlichungen der Vereinigung der Deutschen Staatsrechtslehrer (VVDStRL), vol.20, pp.1–52.
Shustrov D. (2021) Nadkonstitutsionnye normy v konstitutsionnom prave [Supra-constitutional norms in constitutional law]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.30, no.1, pp.100–127. (In Russian).
Snezhko O. (2011) Predely zakonodatel'nogo ogranicheniya sotsial'nykh prav [The limits of legal constraints of social rights]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.20, no.2, pp.34–46. (In Russian).
Spengler O. (1931) Der Mensch und die Technik: Beitrag zu einer Philosophie des Lebens, München: C.H. Beck.
Spinello R.A., Bottis M. (2009) A Defense of Intellectual Property Rights, Cheltenham; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Stein E., Frank G. (2002) Staatsrecht, 18th ed., Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Steiner U. (2010) Sotsial'noe gosudarstvo bez sotsial'nykh prav: real'naya situatsiya vazhnee obe­shchaniy i deklaratsiy [The social State without social rights: the actual state is more important than promises and declarations]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.19, no.4, pp.118–129. (In Russian).
Talapina E.V. (2019) Prava cheloveka v Internete [Human rights on the Internet]. Zhurnal rossiy­skogo prava, no.2, pp.41–54. (In Russian).
Talapina E.V. (2019) Evolyutsiya prav cheloveka v tsifrovuyu epokhu [Evolution of human rights in digital era]. Proceedings of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, vol.14, no.3, pp.122–146. (In Russian).
Varlamova N. (2009) Klassifikatsiya prav cheloveka: podkhody k probleme [Classifications of human rights: approaches to the problem]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.18, no.4, pp.152–166. (In Russian).
Varlamova N.V. (2019) Tsifrovye prava — novoe pokolenie prav cheloveka? [Digital rights — new generation of human rights?]. Proceedings of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, vol.14, no.4, pp.9–46. (In Russian).
Varlamova N.V. (2019) Tsifrovye prava — novoe pokolenie prav cheloveka? (okonchanie) [Digital rights — new generation of human rights? (final part)]. Proceedings of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, vol.14, no.5, pp 141–167. (In Russian).
Voinikanis E.A. (2016) Pravo byt' zabytym: pravovoe regulirovanie i ego teoreticheskoe osmyslenie [The right to be forgotten: actual regulation and its theoretical reflection]. Pravovedenie, no.3, pp.70–89. (In Russian).
Weber M. (1921/1922) Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriß der verstehenden Soziologie, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).
Woods D. a.o. (2019) Diverse and Robust Molecular Algorithms Using Reprogrammable DNA Self-Assembly. Nature, vol.567, pp.366–372.
Zor'kin V. (2018) Pravo v tsifrovom mire [Law in the digital world]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 29 May. Available at: https://rg.ru/2018/05/29/zorkin-zadacha-gosudarstva-priznavat-i-zashchishchat-cifrovye-prava-grazhdan.html (accessed: 15.12.2021). (In Russian).
Zor'kin V.D. (2020) Providentia ili o prave budushchego v epokhu tsifrovizatsii [Providentia, or on the law of the future in the era of digitalization]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, no.6, pp.7–19. (In Russian).
Zor'kin V. (2021) Vozvrashchenie gosudarstva: deesposobnost' vlasti proveryaetsya v obshchena­tsional'noy bede [The return of the State: the capacity of the authorities is being tested in national trouble]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 17 May. Available at: https://rg.ru/2021/05/17/valerij-zorkin-deesposobnost-vlasti-proveriaetsia-v-obshchenacionalnoj-bede.html (accessed: 15.12.2021). (In Russian).