Author: Ruslan Kantur
Keywords: devolution; international legal personality; law of international organizations; law-making; law-making discretion; peacekeeping operations; United Nations; United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
The paper delves into the international legal aspects of law-making activity of the United Nations transitional administrations. It is emphasised that notwithstanding their lack of international legal personality, such administrations possess law-making powers stemming from the so-called devolution of international legal personality, which is defined as endowing a non-subject of international law by a subject of international law with powers that enable the former one to exercise the elements of international legal personality, including law-making, with the latter one retaining its capacity to be held liable, if the acceptor of the mentioned powers commits a wrongful act. It is pointed out that transitional administrations carry out their duties in specific circumstances when there is a lack of governance on a particular state territory. The sovereign duties mentioned are entrusted to such administrations by the United Nations in the name of the whole international community, with law-making powers embodying one of the forms of these duties. With reference to the ICJ judgment in Certain Phosphate Lands in Nauru, it is argued that UN transitional administrations do not possess an international legal personality distinct from that of the United Nations. The legal rules created by transitional administrations are positive, regulatory, and imperative; furthermore, they are identified as rules of international law and constitute a coherent and autonomous legal complex named lex pacificatoria. Therewith, lex pacificatoria is presumed compliant with universal peremptory norms of international law (jus cogens) binding upon all states. The discretionary powers of the UN transitional administrations, as well as their limits, are exemplified by the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). It is concluded that the limits of discretionary powers of transitional administrations have temporary and territorial dimensions. Insofar as temporary aspects are concerned, the law-making powers of such administrations are valid unless the mandate granted thereto by the United Nations expires. In regards to a territorial dimension, transitional administrations are able to exercise law-making powers only on that territory where they are deployed and with respect to which they are entitled to the accomplishment of their duties in conformity with a mandate. Additionally, transitional administrations cannot create norms which can be contrary to universal peremptory norms of international law.
About the author: Ruslan Kantur – LL.M., Legal Advisor, Department for New Challenges and Threats, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.
Citation: Kantur R. (2019) Mezhdunarodno-pravovye osnovaniya i pravovaya priroda normotvorcheskoy deyatel'nosti vremennykh administratsiy OON [International legal grounds and legal character of law-making powers of the United Nations Transitional Administrations]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, vol.9, no.2, pp.107–127. (In Russian).
Anthony G. (2015) Devolution Issues, Legislative Power, and Legal Sovereignty. In: Antoine A. (ed.) Le droit public britannique: état des lieux et perspectives, Paris: Société de législation comparée, pp.95–115.
Bassiouni M.С. (1990) A Functional Approach to “General Principles of International Law”. Michigan Journal of International Law, vol.11, no.3, pp.768–818.
Beenakker E.B. (2018) The Implementation of International Law in the National Legal Order: A Legislative Perspective, Leiden: Leiden University.
Bell C. (2006) Peace Agreements: Their Nature and Legal Status. American Journal of International Law, vol.100, no.2, pp.373–412.
Boon K.E. (2016) The United Nations as Good Samaritan: Immunity and Responsibility. Chicago Journal of International Law, vol.16, no.2, pp.341–385.
Cançado Trindade A.A. (2010) International Law for Humankind: Towards a New Jus Gentium, Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Christie G.C. (1986) An Essay on Discretion. Duke Law Journal, no.5, pp.747–778.
Cohen H.G. (2007) Finding International Law: Rethinking the Doctrine of Sources. Iowa Law Review, vol.93, no.1, pp.65–129.
Craven M.C.R. (1998) The Problem of State Succession and the Identity of States under International Law. European Journal of International Law, vol.9, no.1, pp.142–162.
Crawford J. (2006) Creation of States in International Law, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
D’Aspremont J. (2007) Abuse of Legal Personality of International Organizations and the Responsibility of Member States. International Organizations Law Review, vol.4, no.1, pp.91–119.
D’Aspremont J. (2016) International Responsibility and the Constitution of Power: International Organizations Bolstered: Amsterdam Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No.2016-09.
Damrosch L.F. (1993) The Role of the Great Powers in United Nations Peace-Keeping. Yale Journal of International Law, vol.18, no.1, pp.429–434.
Daugirdas K. (2016) How and Why International Law Binds International Organizations. Harvard International Law Journal, vol.57, no.2, pp.325–381.
Davis C.K. (1897) Lectures on International Law, St. Paul, MN: McGill-Warner.
Egorov S.A. (2014) Gibridnye (smeshannye) tribunaly i sudy [Hybrid (Mixed) Tribunals and Courts]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnye organizatsii = International Law and International Organizations, no.3, pp.470–481. (In Russian).
Engle E. (2010) U.N. Packing the States’ Reputation? A Response to Professor Brewster’s “Unpacking the States’ Reputation”. Penn State Law Review, vol.114, pp.34–40.
Findlay T. (ed.) (1996) Challenges for the New Peacekeepers, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fox G.H. (2014) Navigating Multilateral/Unilateral Divide. In: Stahn C., Easterday J.S., Iverson J. (eds.) Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.229–257.
Gazzini T. Personality of International Organizations. In: Klabbers J., Wallendahl Å. (eds.) (2011) Research Handbook on the Law of International Organizations, Cheltenham; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, pp.33–55.
Godwin J.D. (1999) NATO’s Role in Peace Operations: Reexamining the Treaty after Bosnia and Kosovo. Military Law Review, vol.160, pp. P.1–95.
Guilfoyle D. (2016) International Criminal Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickley J.E., Jr. (1997) The Source of International Legal Personality in the 21st Century. Hofstra Law and Policy Symposium, vol.2, pp.1–18.
東泰介 [Higashi T.] (二十九平成年 ) 国際組織の国際法人格の理論と実際（二・完） [Kokusai soshiki-no kokusaihōzinkaku-no riron to jissai] [International Legal Personality of International Organizations: Theories and Practices]。 大阪学院大学 法学研究 [Osaka Gakuin Law Review]、 第43巻 [vol.43]、 第1・2号 [no.1-2]。43-1-2ページ、43-1-4ページ [pp.41-1-2, 41-3-4]。 (In Japanese).
稲原泰平 [Inahara Y.]。 (十六平成年 ) 慣習・権力そして法制定権力：国際関係と慣習国際法 [Kanshū kenryoku soshite hōseiteikenryoku: Kokusaikankei to kanshūkokusaihō] [Custom, Power and the Power of Rules : International Relations and Customary International Law] // 金沢清涼大学論集 [Kanazawa University]、 第38巻 [vol. 38]、 第1号 [no. 1]、 26ページ [p.26]。 (In Japanese).
Ispolinov A.S. (2015) Kontrol' Mezhdunarodnogo Suda OON nad resheniyami Soveta Bezopasnosti [Control of the International Court of Justice over UN Security Council Resolutions]. Zakonodatel'stvo, no.2, pp.48–62. (In Russian).
Ispolinov A.S. (2016) Kontrol' regional'nykh i natsional'nykh sudov nad resheniyami Soveta Bezopasnosti OON [Control of Regional and Domestic Courts over UN Security Council Resolutions]. Zakonodatel'stvo, no.1, pp.54–65. (In Russian).
Jain N. (2005) A Separate Law for Peacekeepers: The Clash between the Security Council and the International Criminal Court. European Journal of International Law, vol.16, no.2, pp.239–254.
Kalamkaryan R.A., Migachev Yu.I. (2004) Mezhdunarodnoe pravo [International Law], Moscow: Eksmo. (In Russian).
Kavanagh J.J. (1997) U.S. War Powers and the United Nations Security Council. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, vol.20, no.1, pp.159–186.
Kayumova A.R. (2009) Sovremennye yurisdiktsionnye problemy operatsiy OON po podderzhaniyu mira [Modern jurisdictional problems of UN peace-keeping operations]. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, no.1, pp.69–80. (In Russian).
Lauterpacht E. (ed.) (1975) International Law: being the collected papers of Hersch Lauterpacht. Vol.2: The Law of Peace. Part 1: International Law in General, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lukashuk I.I. (2005) Mezhdunarodnoe pravo. Obshchaya chast' [International law. General part], Moscow: Wolters Kluwer. (In Russian).
Malanczuk P. (1997) Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, 7th ed., London: Routledge.
McLaughlin R. (2003) East Timor, Transitional Administration, and the Status of the Territorial Sea. Melbourne Journal of International Law, vol.4, no.1, pp.323–340.
Newton M.A. (1996) Continuum Crimes: Military Jurisdiction over Foreign Nationals Who Commit International Crimes. Military Law Review, vol.153, pp.1–93.
Oppenheim L. (1908) The Science of International Law: Its Task and Method. American Journal of International Law, vol.2, no.2, pp.313–356.
Østrup A. (2015) Conceptions of State Identity and Continuity in Contemporary International Legal Scholarship: Conference Paper No.11/2015, 2015 ESIL Research Forum, Florence, 14–15 May 2015. European Society of International Law Conference Paper Series, vol.6, no.3, pp.1–27.
Phillimore R. (1879) Commentaries upon International Law. Vol.I, 3rd ed., London: Butterworths.
Purdă N. (2012) Aspects of International Legal Personality of International Organizations. Challenges of the Knowledge Society. Legal Sciences, vol.2, pp.891–900.
Ratner S.R. (2005) Foreign Occupation and International Territorial Administration: The Challenges of Convergence. European Journal of International Law, vol.16, no.4, pp.695–719.
Rosand E. (2004) The Security Council as “Global Legislator”: Ultra Vires or Ultra Innovative? // Fordham International Law Journal, vol.28, no.4, pp.542–590.
Scott R.D. (1997) Getting Back to the Real United Nations: Global Peace Norms and Creeping Interventionism. Military Law Review, vol.154, pp.27–52.
Stahn C. (2003) The Ambiguities of Security Council Resolution 1422 (2002). European Journal of International Law, vol.14, no.1, pp.85–104.
Stahn C. (2005) Justice under Transitional Administration: Contours and Critique of a Paradigm. Houston Journal of International Law, vol.27, no.2, pp.311–344.
Steinbrück Platise M. (2018) Legitimate Governance as a Privilege and Price for the Autonomy of International Organizations: Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (MPIL) Research Paper No.2018-18.
Strohmeyer H. (2001) Collapse and Reconstruction of a Judicial System: The United Nations Missions in Kosovo and East Timor. American Journal of International Law, vol.95, no.1, pp.46–63.
Tiunov O.I. (2017) The International Legal Personality of States: Problems and Solutions. In: Johns F. (ed.) International Legal Personality, London: Routledge, pp.65–78.
Tolstykh V.L. (2009) Mezhdunarodnoe pravo [International law], Moscow: Wolters Kluwer. (In Russian).
Turley S.L. (1994) Keeping the Peace: Do the Laws of War Apply? Texas Law Review, vol.73, no.1, pp.139–176.
Trenkov-Wermuth C. (2010) United Nations Justice: Legal and Judicial Reform in Governance Operations, Tokyo; New York; Paris: United Nations University Press.
Van Willigen N. (2013) Peacebuilding and International Administration: The Cases of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, Abingdon: Routledge.
Végh K. (2008) A Legislative Power of the UN Security Council? Acta Juridica Hungarica, vol.49, no.3, pp.275–295.
Vylegzhanin A.N. (ed.) (2010) Mezhdunarodnoe pravo [International law], 2nd ed., Moscow: Yurayt. (In Russian).
Vylegzhanin A.N., Neverova E.V. (2016) Rossiysko-yaponskie dogovorennosti o morskikh rayonakh, prilegayushchikh k Yuzhno-Kuril'skim ostrovam [Russian-Japanese Agreements Relating to the Sea Areas Adjacent to the Disputed Southern Kuril Islands]. Moscow Journal of International Law, no.2, pp.32–65. (In Russian).
Wolfrum R. (2005) International Administration in Post-Conflict Situations by the United Nations and Other International Actors. Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, vol.9, no.1, pp.649–696.
Worster W.T. (2016) Relative International Legal Personality of Non-State Actors. Brooklyn Journal of International Law, vol.42, no.1, pp.207–273.
山田 洋一郎 [Yamada Y.] (二十二平成年 ) 国際平和活動：いくつかの国際法的論点 [Kokusaiheiwakatsudō: Ikutsuka-no kokusaihōtekironten] [International Peacekeeping: Certain International Legal Aspects]。 外務省調査月報 [Monthly of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs]、 第3号 [no.3]。 32–33ページ [pp.32–33]。 (In Japanese).