Authors: Filatova Mariya, Irina Getman-Pavlova
Keywords: burden of proof; constitutional revolution; evidence; International Civil Procedure; model of pleading; procedural conflict rules; relevance and admissibility of evidence; taking evidence in a foreign jurisdiction
This article offers an analysis of the issues of taking evidence in transnational civil procedure. The research methodology is based on the use of comparative legal analysis. The normative base of the research includes international legal acts, Russian and foreign national legislation, and case law of foreign courts. The authors emphasize that the main difficulties in the resolution of transnational disputes result from the use of different pleading models, different aspects of evaluating evidence (as substantive or procedural categories), and the absence of a universally recognized and mandatory tool of taking evidence in a foreign jurisdiction. The legislation and case law of common law countries provide for provisions on the possibility of using foreign evidence law and conflict rules determining the law applicable to evidence. In civil law systems there is a common rule that procedural matters are resolved in accordance with lex fori, with a developed system of procedural conflict rules. When there is a need to obtain evidence in a foreign jurisdiction, there are two modern ways to do it: 1) using the tools of legal assistance provided for by international agreements (whether global or regional); or, 2) taking evidence directly from a foreign participant, for example by not sending an official request to a court of a State where the evidence and/or information are being held. The first way is the optimal way, but its effectiveness is diminished because of a limited number of members of relevant international treaties. Probably the best methodology in the current situation would be the use of lex mercatoria tools, in particular, the ALI/UNIDROIT Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure.
About the authors: Irina Getman-Pavlova – Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia; Maria Filatova – Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
Citation: Getman-Pavlova I.V., Filatova M.A. (2017) Poluchenie i predstavlenie dokazatel’stv v mezhdunarodnom grazhdanskom protsesse (otdel’nye teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy) [Evidence getting and presenting in international civil procedure (particular theoretic and practical problems)]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, no.3, pp.96–109. (In Russian).
Bar L. von (1889) Theorie und Praxis des internationalen Privatrechts, Hannover: Hahn.
Bazedow J. (2016) Pravo otkrytykh obshchestv – chastnoe i gosudarstvennoe regulirovanie mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy: obshchiy kurs mezhdunarodnogo chastnogo prava [the law of open societies – private ordering and public regulation of international relations: general course on international private law], Y.Yumashev (transl.), Moscow: Norma. (In Russian).
Caponi R. (2011) Transnational Litigation and Elements of Fair Trial. Presented at XIV World Congress of the International Association of Procedural Law (IAPL), Heidelberg, 25–30 July. Available at: http://www.iapl-2011-congress.com/Inhalt/Papers/General%20Reports/General%20Report%20-%20CaponiENG.pdf (accessed: 30.08.2017).
Cheshir Dzh., Nort P. (1982) Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo [International private law], S.N.Andrianov (transl.), M.M.Boguslavsky (ed.), Moscow: Progress. (In Russian).
Hancock M. (1942) Torts in the Conflict of Laws, Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press; Chicago, IL: Callaghan & Co.
Kostin A.A. (2015) Usloviya dopustimosti otdel'nykh vidov dokazatelstv, poluchennykh v inostrannykh gosudarstvakh [Conditions of admissibility of certain types of evidence obtained in foreign states]. Zakon, no.9, pp.156–167. (In Russian).
Malyshev K.I. (1878) Kurs obshchego grazhdanskogo prava Rossii [Course of Russian general civil law]. Saint Petersburg: Tipografiya M.Stasyulevicha. (In Russian).
Meili F. (1904) Das internationale Civilprocessrecht auf Grund der Theorie, Gesetzgebung und Praxis. T.II, Zürich: Art. Institut Orell Füssli.
Morse C.G.J. (1978) Torts in Private International Law, Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland Publishing Co.
Pilenko A.A. (1911) Ocherki po sistematike chastnogo mezhdunarodnogo prava [Essays on private international law systematics], Saint Petersburg: Tipografiya M.Stasyulevicha. (In Russian).
Polumordvinov D.I. (1965) Issledovanie i otsenka dokazatel'stv v mezhdunarodnom grazhdanskom protsessual'nom prave [Examination and evaluation of evidence in international civil procedural law]. In: Sovetskiy ezhegodnik mezhdunarodnogo prava, 1963 [Soviet yearbook of international law, 1963], Moscow: Nauka, pp.462–474. (In Russian).
Scherpe J.C. (2016) Alleviations of Proof in German and English Civil Evidence. Rabels Zeitschrift fuer auslaendisches und internationales Privatrecht, vol.80, no.4, pp.888–925.
Schlosser P. (2000) Jurisdiction and International Judicial and Administrative Cooperation. In: Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, vol.284, pp.9–428.
Shak H. (2001) Mezhdunarodnoe grazhdanskoe protsessual'noe pravo [International civil procedure law], Moscow: BEK. (In Russian).
Szászy I. (1966) The Basic Connecting Factor in International Cases in the Domain of Civil Procedure. The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol.15, no.2, pp.436–456.
Trocker N. (2009) Transnational Litigation, Access to Evidence and U.S. Discovery: Learning from American “Exceptionalism”? In: Stürner R., Kawano M. (eds.) Current Topics of International Litigation, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, pp.145–199.
Vinogradova E.A., Filatova M.A. (transl.) (2011) Printsipy transgranichnogo protsessa ALI/UNIDROIT[Principles of transnational civil procedure ALI/UNIDROIT], Moscow: Infotropic Media. (In Russian).
Wach А. (1885) Handbuch des deutschen Civilprozeßrechts, Bd.I, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.
Yablochkov T.M. (1909) Kurs mezhdunarodnogo grazhdanskogo protsessual'nogo prava [Course of international civil procedural law], Yaroslavl: Tipografiya gubernskovo pravleniya. (In Russian).
Erpyleva N.Yu., Getman-Pavlova I.V. (2014) “Reversivnaya (obratnaya) kodifikatsiya” mezhdunarodnogo chastnogo prava v Rumynii [“Reverse codification” of international private law in Romania]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, no.3, pp.48–62. (In Russian),
Yuzefovich V.B. (2012) Dokazatel'stva i dokazyvanie v arbitrazhnom protsesse: analiz pravoprimenitel'noy praktiki. Vyvody sudebnogo yurista [Evidence and proof in commercial procedure: case-law analysis. An attorney’s conclusions], Moscow: Infotropic Media. (In Russian).
Zitelmann Е. (1898) Internationales Privatrecht. Bd.II, München; Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.