Untapping the potential of Preferential Trade Agreements to promote forest protection: A comparison on forest-related provisions and their enforcement in the US and EU PTAs

Настоящий материал (информация) произведён, распространён иностранным агентом Автономная некоммерческая организация «Институт права и публичной политики» либо касается деятельности иностранного агента Автономная некоммерческая организация «Институт права и публичной политики»

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Author: Yilly Vanessa Pacheco

DOI: 10.21128/2226-2059-2021-3-127-140

Keywords: Compliance and Enforcement; EU Preferential Trade Agreements; Forest Governance; International Forest Law; Multilateral Environmental Agreements; Sustainable Forest Management; US Preferential Trade Agreements


The EU and the US are the actors with the highest number of environmental provisions in their Preferential Trade Agreements. Since 1999, specific rules on forest governance and Sustainable Forest Management have been incorporated in their PTAs. The implementation of such forest-related provisions in PTAs is mostly linked to cooperation among the Parties. However, in cases of noncompliance, PTAs provide for bilateral consultations, the application of the general dispute settlement mechanism, and even trade sanctions. The enforcement approaches differ in the US and the EU PTAs. This study focuses on the question of the potential of PTAs to contribute to forest governance and SFM and analyses the disputes that arose so far. It shows how forest issues may play a key role in negotiating and implementing PTAs, promoting compliance of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, and promoting public participation in environmental matters. The paper concludes that PTAs provide further options to develop and implement International Forest Law beyond the Multilateral Environmental Agreements.

About the author: Yilly Vanessa Pacheco – Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Department of International Economic Law and Environmental Law, Institute of International Law and European Law, Georg August University of Göttingen; Academic Assistant of the Jean Monnet Chair for European Union and Global Sustainable Development Through Law co-financed by the Erasmus program of the European Union, Göttingen, Germany

Citation: Pacheco Y.V. (2021) Ispol'zovanie potentsiala preferentsial'nykh torgovykh soglasheniy dlya sodey­stviya zashchite lesov: sravnenie polozheniy, kasayushchikhsya lesnogo khozyaystva, i ikh priminenie v SShA i ES [Untapping the potential of Preferential Trade Agreements to promote forest protection: A comparison on forest-related provisions and their enforcement in the US and EU PTAs]. Mezhdu­narodnoe pravosudie, vol.11, no.3, pp.127–140. (In Russian).


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