Available in Russian
Author: Aleksandr Evseev
Keywords: Colombia; deaths illegitimately presented as casualties in combat; International Criminal Court; post-conflict settlement; Special Jurisdiction for Peace; transitional justice
The article analyzes the theoretical and practical problems that arise during the construction of the Colombian model of transitional justice. The latter is viewed as a combination of judicial and quasi-judicial means, with the help of which it becomes possible to achieve a peaceful settlement after the end of the civil war of 1964–2016. Particular attention is paid to the socio-political context and mass sentiments prevailing in Colombian society regarding the legitimacy of transferring the Anglo-American construction of Transitional Justice to Latin America. The so-called “Integrated System of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Non-Repetition”, which is a consolidated version of the four main elements of transitional justice: criminal prosecution, truth seeking, reparations to the innocent victims and “deal with the past”, is being studied in detail. In particular, the author dwells on the issue of amnesties for participants in an armed conflict, the activities of the “truth commission” and compensation payments to victims of mass violence. In addition, the article examines the activities of the Colombian Special Jurisdiction for Peace, the relevant statistical data are provided. The “Santrich case” is mentioned as a marker of negative trends that continue to grow in the activities of a new jurisdiction. The conclusion is that the legal means of resolving the conflict are secondary, albeit of absolute importance, in comparison with political agreements, to which all participants of the process of national reconciliation sometimes are not ready organizationally and psychologically.
About the author: Aleksandr Evseev – Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law, Associate Professor, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
Citation: Evseev A. (2020) Perekhodnoe pravosudie v Kolumbii: nerealizovannyy potentsial [Transitional justice in Colombia: unrealized potential]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, vol.10, no.4, pp.77–99. (In Russian).
(2003) FARC-EP. Revolyutsionnaya Kolumbiya. Istoriya partizanskogo dvizheniya [FARC-EP. The revolutionary Colombia. The history of insurgent movement], A.M.Mayskiy (transl.), Moscow: Gileya. (In Russian).
Ambos K., Aboueldahab S. (2018) The Colombian Peace Process and the Special Jurisdiction for Peace. Diritto penale contemporaneo, no.4, pp.255–263.
Antonov A., Yevsieiev O. (2019) Amnistii v mekhanizme perekhodnogo pravosudiya [Amnesties in the mechanism of transitional justice]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, vol.9, no.1, pp.118–133. (In Russian).
Aponte Cardona A. (2010) Criminal Prosecution of International Crimes: The Colombian Case. International Criminal Law Review, vol.4, no.10, pp.549–569.
Bobrinsky N. (2018) Postsovetskoe perekhodnoe pravosudie v Rossii: dostizheniya i upushchennye vozmozhnosti [Post-Soviet transitional justice in Russia: Achievements and lost opportunities]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.27, no.1, pp.142–168. (In Russian).
Dabagyan E.S. (2017) Kolumbiya: trudnye dorogi k miru [Colombia: the difficult roads to the peace]. Novaya i noveyshaya istoriya, no.5, pp.118–125. (In Russian).
Ehpple N. (2020) Neudobnoe proshloe. Pamyat’ o gosudarstvennykh prestupleniyakh v Rossii i drugikh stranakh [The uncomfortable past. The memory about crimes against the State in Russia and other countries], Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. (In Russian).
Girin Yu.N. (2013) Violensiya kak tip kul’tury [La Violencia as a type of culture]. Latinskaya Amerika, no.11, pp.97–107. (In Russian).
Gomez-Velasquez A. (2015) The Constitutional Framework for Transitional Justice in Colombia. Opinion Juridica, vol.14, no.28, pp.21–44.
Grigulevich I.R. (1972) “Myatezhnaya” tserkov’ v Latinskoy Amerike [The “insurgent” church in Latin America], Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).
Hayner P. (2018) The Peacemaker’s Paradox: Pursuing Justice in the Shadow of Conflict, New York; London: Routledge.
Hillebrecht C., Huneeus A., Borda S. (2018) The Judicialization of Peace. Harvard International Law Journal, vol.59, no.2, pp.279–330.
Ivanovskiy Z.V. (2017) Kolumbiyskiy uzel razvyazan? [The Colombian knot untied, isn’t it?]. In: Martynov B.F. (ed.) Sovremennaya organizovannaya prestupnost’ v Latinskoy Amerike i stranakh Karibskogo basseyna [The modern organized criminality in Latin America and the Caribbean countries], Moscow: Ves’ mir, pp.155–176. (In Russian).
Ivanovskiy Z.V. (2020) Kolumbiya: mirnyy protsess i vyzovy postkonfliktnogo perioda [Colombia: the peace process and the challenges of the post-conflict time]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, vol.64, no.1, pp.110–118. (In Russian).
Loshak V. (2016) “Otkryt’ glaza!” [“Open the eyes!”]. Ogonyok, no.12, pp.38–40. (In Russian).
Martinovs’kiy R., Moroz L. (eds.) (2018) Vibіr zaradi spravedlivostі: Posіbnik zі stvorennya mekhanіzmіv prityagnennya do vіdpovіdal’nostі za naytyazhchі zlochini [Options for justice: A handbook for designing accountability mechanisms for grave crimes], Vol.2, Kyiv: Vіdkrite suspіl’stvo. (In Ukrainian).
Olasolo H., Ramirez Mendoza J.M.F. (2017) The Colombian Integrated System of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Non-Repetition. Journal of International Criminal Justice, vol.5, no.15, pp.1011–1047.
Parra Vera O., Jesús Pérez E. (2019) Mezhamerikanskiy Sud po pravam cheloveka: obzor praktiki za 2018 god [Inter-American Court of Human Rights: a review of practice for 2018]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, vol.9, no.3, pp.3–17. (In Russian).
Platoshkin N.N. (2017) Che Gevara [Che Guevara], Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya. (In Russian).
Posada-Carbo E. (2011) Colombia after Uribe. Journal of Democracy, vol.22, no.1, pp.137–151.
Restrepo E.M. (2013) Colombia. In: Stan L., Nedelsky N. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice, New York; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.106–113.
Rowen J.R. (2017) “We Don’t Believe in Transitional Justice”: Peace and the Politics of Legal Ideas in Colombia. Law & Social Inquiry, vol.42, no.3, pp.622–647.
Valiñas M. (2020) The Colombian Special Jurisdiction for Peace: A Few Issues for Consideration When Investigating and Adjudicating Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes. Journal of International Criminal Justice, vol.18, no.2, pp.449–467.
Yevsieiev O. (2017) Gibridnye sudy kak institut tranzitivnogo pravosudiya [Hybrid courts as an institute of transitional justice]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, vol.7, no.3, pp.47–61. (In Russian).