CCR №6(115) 2016
Towards a global constitutional gene pool

Abstract. 
This essay aims to develop the methodology of comparative constitutional law in a way that draws more comprehensively on world constitutional experience, thus maximising the possibilities of the discipline and of what might be considered to be a global constitutional gene pool. It proceeds in two stages. The first part identifies key methodological challenges for comparative constitutional law, drawing on the literature of comparative law, while taking account of the distinctive character of constitutional law. The challenges examined here are the dichotomy between similarity and difference; the approach to the task of comparison; taxonomy; the impact of culture; and pluralism. The second part of the argument considers the impact on comparative constitutional method of the conditions in which Constitutions operate in the early 21st century, including internationalisation, globalisation and advances in information technology. For a truly global discipline of comparative constitutional law, the methodology for comparison must apply effectively, and be recognised as having effective application, to constitutional arrangements in all parts of the world. In what follows, the author draws together some general propositions about method that take into account of the lessons of comparative law, the nature of constitutional law and the global context in which Constitutions operate at the beginning of this century. This part of the essay aims to show that, while there are considerable contemporary pressures for convergence, with implications for comparative method, other forces foster difference and pluralism, creating new methodological challenges. The essay is concluded with a series of propositions for the methodology of comparative constitutional law, as a platform for further research and dialogue.

Citation: 
Saunders Ch. (2016) Na puti k global’nomu konstitutsionnomu genofondu [Towards a global constitutional gene pool]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, no.6, pp.99–122. (In Russian).

About the author
Cheryl Saunders- Laureate Professor, University of Melbourne.

References:

Ackerman B. (1991) We the people. Vol.1: Foundations, Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Arato A. (2009) Constitution making under occupation: The politics of imposed revolution in Iraq, New York: Columbia University Press.

Arendt H. (1973) On revolution, London: Penguin Books.

Bell J. (2001) French legal cultures, London: Butterworths.

Bell J. (2002) Comparing public law. In: Harding A., Örücü E. (eds.) Comparative law in the 21st century, The Hague: Kluwer Law International, pp.235–248.

Bogdandy A. von. (2006) Constitutionalism in international law: Comment on a proposal from Germany.Harvard International Law Journal, vol.47, no.1, pp.223–242.

Boix C., Stokes S.C. (eds.) (2007) The Oxford handbook of comparative politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Byrnes A. (2000) And some have bills of rights thrust upon them: The experience of Hong Kong’s Bill of Rights. In: Alston Ph. (ed.) Promoting human rights through Bills of Rights: Comparative perspectives, New York: Oxford University Press, pp.318–392.

Chen A.H.Y. (2007) A tale of two islands: Comparative reflections on constitutionalism in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hong Kong Law Journal, vol.37, no.2, pp.647–688.

Choudhry S. (2006) The migration of constitutional ideas, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Choudhry S. (ed.) (2008) Constitutional design for divided societies: integration or accommodation?Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Costa P., Zolo D. (eds.) (2007) The rule of law: History, theory and criticism, Dordrecht: Springer.

Cotterrell R. (2006) Comparative law and legal culture. In: Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.709–738.

Cotterrell R. (2008) Law and culture: Inside and beyond the nation state. Retfærd: Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, vol.31, no.4, pp.23–36.

Dannemann G. (2006) Comparative law: Study of similarities or differences? In: Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.383–420.

Dupré C. (2003) Importing the law in post-communist transitions, Portland, OR: Hart.

Eoseewong N. (2003) The Thai cultural constitution. Kyoto Review SouthEast Asia, no.3. Available at: http://kyotoreview.cseas.kyoto-u.ac.jp/issue/issue2/index.html (accessed 17.12.2009).

Frankenberg G. (2006) Comparing constitutions: Ideas, ideals and ideology: Toward a layered narrative.International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol.4, no.3, pp.439–459.

Gardbaum S. (2002) The new Commonwealth model of constitutionalism. American Journal of Comparative Law, vol.49, no.4, pp.707–760.

Gardbaum S. (2008) The myth and the reality of American constitutional exceptionalism. Michigan Law Review, vol.107, pp.391–466.

Ghai Y. (2005) A journey around constitutions: Reflections on contemporary constitutions. South African Law Journal, vol.122, no.4, pp.804–831.

Ghai Y., Galli G. (2006) Constitution building processes and democratization, Stockholm: International IDEA.

Ginsburg T., Chernykh S., Elkins Z. (2008) Commitment and diffusion: How and why national constitutions incorporate international law. University of Illinois Law Review, vol.2008, no.1, pp.201–237.

Ginsburg T., Elkins Z., Blount J. (2009) Does the process of constitution-making matter?. Annual review of law and social science, vol.5, pp.201–223.

Ginsburg T., Elkins Z., Melton J. (2009) The lifespan of written constitutions. The Record (Alumni Magazine), Spring. Available at: http://www.law.uchicago.edu/alumni/magazine/lifespan (accessed 13.12.2009).

Glenn H.P. (2006) Legal families and legal traditions. In: Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.) Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.421–440.

Glenn H.P. (2007) Legal traditions of the world, 3rd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gordley J. (2003) The universalist heritage. In: Legrand P., Munday R. (eds.) Comparative legal studies: Traditions and transitions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.31–45.

Harding A. (2002) Comparative public law: Some lessons from south east Asia. In: Harding A., Örücü E. (eds.) Comparative law in the 21st century. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, pp.249–266.

Hart V. (2003) Democratic constitution making. USIP: Special Report, vol.107, July. Available at: http://www.usip.org/files/resources/sr107.pdf (accessed 17.12.2009).

Hirschl R. (2005) The question of case selection in comparative constitutional law. American Journal of Comparative Law, vol.53, no.1, pp.125–155.

Hoecke M. van, Warrington M. (1998) Legal cultures, legal paradigms and legal doctrine: Towards a new model for comparative law. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol.47, pp.495–536.

Ibhawoh B. (2000) Between culture and constitution: Evaluating the cultural legitimacy of human rights in the African State. Human Rights Quarterly, vol.22, no.3, pp.838–860.

Jackson V.C. (2001) Narratives of federalism: Of continuities and comparative constitutional experience.Duke Law Journal, vol.51, no.1, pp.223–287.

Jackson V.C., Tushnet M. (2002) Defining the field of comparative constitutional law, Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kahn P.W. (2003) Comparative Constitutionalism in a New Key. Michigan Law Review, vol.101, August, pp.2677–2705.

Kahn-Freund O. (1974) On uses and misuses of comparative law. Modern Law Review, vol.37, no.1, pp.1–27.

Keitner C.I. (2009) Rights beyond borders: Unpublished manuscript. Available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1480886 (accessed 17.12.2009).

Kleinheisterkamp J. (2006) Development of comparative law in Latin America. In: Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.261–304.

Klug H. (2000) Constituting democracy: law, globalism, and South Africa’s political reconstruction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Knop K., Michaels R., Riles A. (2010) International law in domestic courts: A conflict of laws approach.Proceedings American Society of International Law, vol.103. P.269–274.

Krisch N. (2009) The case for pluralism in postnational law: London School of Economics, Legal Studies Working Paper No.12/2009. Available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1418707 (accessed 17.12.2009).

Legrand P. (2003) The Same and the Different. In: Legrand P., Munday R. (eds.) Comparative legal studies: Traditions and transitions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.240–311.

Legrand P. (2008) Comparative legal studies and the matter of authenticity. Journal of Comparative Law, vol.1, no.2, pp.365–460.

Loewenstein K. (1957) Political power and the government process, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Londras F. de. (2010) Dualism, domestic courts, and the rule of international law. In: Sellers M., Tomaszewski T. (eds.) Ius gentiumThe rule of law in comparative perspective, Dordrecht: Springer.

Loughlin M., Walker N. (eds.) (2007) The paradox of constitutionalism: constituent power and constitutional form, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MacCormick N. (2007) Institutions of law: An essay in legal theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MacFarlane P. (2006) Some challenges facing legal strengthening projects in small Pacific Island states. Journal of Commonwealth Law and Legal Education, vol.4, no.1, pp.103–112.

Mattei U. (1997) Three patterns of law: Taxonomy and change in the world’s legal systems. American Journal of Comparative Law, vol.45, no.1, pp.5–44.

Menski W. (2006) Comparative law in a global context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Menski W. (2009) Indian secular pluralism and its relevance for Europe. In: Grillo R., Ballard R., Ferrari A., Hoekema A.J., Maussen M., Shah P. (eds.) Legal practice and cultural diversity, Farnham: Ashgate, pp.31–47.

Michaels R. (2006) The functional method of comparative law. In: Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.)The Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.339–382.

Moehler D. (2008) Distrusting democrats: Outcomes of participatory constitution making, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Munday R. (2003) Accounting for an encounter. In: Legrand P., Munday R. (eds.) Comparative legal studies: Traditions and transitions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.3–30.

Murray C. (2006) Republic of South Africa. In: Le Roy K., Saunders Ch. (eds.) Legislative, executive and judicial governance in federal countries, Quebec, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp.259–288.

Nelken D., Feest J. (eds.) (2001) Adapting legal cultures, Portland, OR: Hart.

Nijman J., Nollkaemper A. (eds.) (2007) New perspectives on the divide between national and international law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Noda Y. (1989) Introduction to Japanese law, Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.

Öhlinger Th. (2003) The genesis of the Austrian model of constitutional review of legislation. Ratio Juris, vol.16, no.2, pp.206–222.

Örücü E. (2004) Family trees for legal systems: Towards a contemporary approach. In: Van Hoecke M. (ed.) Epistemology and methodology of comparative law, Portland, OR: Hart, pp.359–376.

Örücü E. (2004) The enigma of comparative law: Variations on a theme for the twenty-first century, Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff.

Peters A. (2007) The globalization of state constitutions. In: Nijman J., Nollkaemper A. (eds.) New perspectives on the divide between national and international law, New York: Oxford University Press, pp.251–308.

Plessis J. du (2006) Comparative law and the study of mixed legal systems. In: Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.477–512.

Prado M.M., Trebilcock M.J. (2009) Path dependence, development, and the dynamics of institutional reform. University of Toronto Law Journal, vol.59, pp.341–379.

Ramraj V. (2009) Constitutional tipping points: Sustainable constitutionalism in theory and practice: Paper presented at the Third Asian Forum for Constitutional Law, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2009, September.

Rao A. (2009) The caste question: Dalits and the politics of Modern India, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.) (2006) The Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rosen L. (2003) Beyond compare. In: Legrand P., Munday R. (eds.) Comparative legal studies: Traditions and transitions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.493–510.

Sacco R. (1991) Legal formants: A dynamic approach to comparative law (I). American Journal Comparative Law, vol.39, pp.1–34.

Sen A. (2006) Identity and violence: the illusion of destiny, New York: W.W.Norton.

Sieyès E.J. (1964) What is the third estate? London: Phaidon Press.

Steiner H.J., Alston Ph., Goodman R. (2008) International human rights in context: Law, politics, morals, 3rd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sundberg A. (2008) Diaspora voting rights in 214 countries of the world, 2008, April. Available at: https://www.overseasvotefoundation.org/ initiatives-summit2008-proceedings (accessed 17.12.2009).

Sunstein C.R. (1996) On the expressive function of law. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, vol.144, no.5, pp.2021–2053.

Sunstein C.R. (2002) Designing democracy: What constitutions do, New York: Oxford University Press.

Teubner G. (1998) Legal irritants: Good faith in British law or how unifying law ends up in new divergences. Modern Law Review, vol.61, no.1, pp.11–32.

Tushnet M. (1999) The possibilities of comparative constitutional law. Yale Law Journal, vol.108, pp.1225–1309.

Tushnet M. (2006) Comparative constitutional law. In: Reimann M., Zimmermann R. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of comparative law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.1225–1257.

Tushnet M. (2009) The inevitable globalization of constitutional law. Virginia Journal of International Law, vol.49, no.4, pp.985–1006.

Twining W. (2000) Globalisation and legal theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Twining W. (2009) General Jurisprudence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Valcke C. (2004) Comparative Law as Comparative Jurisprudence: The Comparability of Legal Systems.American Journal of Comparative Law, vol.52, no.3, pp.713–740.

Watson A. (2004) Legal culture v. legal tradition. In: Van Hoecke M. (ed.) Epistemology and methodology in comparative law, Portland, OR: Hart, pp.1–6.

Yeh J.-R., Chang W.-C. (2008) The emergence of transnational constitutionalism: Its features, challenges and solutions. Pennsylvania State International Law Review, vol.27, no.1, pp.89–124.

Yeh J.-R., Chang W.-C. (2009) The changing landscape of modern constitutionalism: East Asian perspective. National Taiwan University Law Review, vol.4, no.1, pp.145–183.

Zweigert K., Kötz H. (1997) An introduction to comparative law, 3rd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Issue articles