burden of proof, constitutional revolution, evidence, International Civil Procedure, model of pleading, procedural conflict rules, relevance and admissibility of evidence, taking evidence in a foreign jurisdiction
This article offers an analysis of the issues of taking evidence in transnational civil procedure. The research methodology is based on the use of comparative legal analysis. The normative base of the research includes international legal acts, Russian and foreign national legislation, and case law of foreign courts. The authors emphasize that the main difficulties in the resolution of transnational disputes result from the use of different pleading models, different aspects of evaluating evidence (as substantive or procedural categories), and the absence of a universally recognized and mandatory tool of taking evidence in a foreign jurisdiction. The legislation and case law of common law countries provide for provisions on the possibility of using foreign evidence law and conflict rules determining the law applicable to evidence. In civil law systems there is a common rule that procedural matters are resolved in accordance with lex fori, with a developed system of procedural conflict rules. When there is a need to obtain evidence in a foreign jurisdiction, there are two modern ways to do it: 1) using the tools of legal assistance provided for by international agreements (whether global or regional); or, 2) taking evidence directly from a foreign participant, for example by not sending an official request to a court of a State where the evidence and/or information are being held. The first way is the optimal way, but its effectiveness is diminished because of a limited number of members of relevant international treaties. Probably the best methodology in the current situation would be the use of lex mercatoria tools, in particular, the ALI/UNIDROIT Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure.
About the author
Irina Getman-Pavlova – Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
Maria Filatova – Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
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