In the modern world, the effective realization of the tasks of justice is largely determined by the development of alternative jurisdictional institutions (as opposed to state-run court systems), including arbitration. Arbitration is a method of resolving civil and other legal disputes that is generally recognized in legal society and that is based on the autonomy of will and equality of subjects of legal relations, as well as broad procedural discretion. Arbitration is a private jurisdictional activity and is a characteristic of self-organization in civil society, which is called upon to play a key role in the development of the rule of law. However, it cannot be opposed to the standards of justice, namely the standards of independence, impartiality, and fairness, which are of a general jurisdictional character. Nevertheless, arbitration is often denied as a part of the judiciary on the basis that the administration of justice is an exclusive function of the state and therefore is entirely placed in the domain of the domestic judiciary. However, does this potestarian paradigm of justice strengthen its quality and legal authority? Is it possible for arbitration, which is excluded from the national judiciary and reduced to transactions or services, to gain its own place in the endorsement of legal fairness by its procedures and acts? Asking themselves these questions, the authors of this article determine the constitutional nature of arbitration as an activity akin by its content to the administration of justice, which also has certain specific features that do not deny, but complement and develop its judicial principles. Arbitration is considered in the unity of jurisdictional, regulatory, and mediation aspects. It is possible with its assistance to settle legal disputes, as well as to shape the most optimal individual legal regulation based on the prevailing approaches in doctrine and practice in search of a compromise between the parties. Due to the convincing value of the expressed legal positions, it can acquire a certain significance of precedent. In this regard, this article discusses the peculiarities of the legal nature of arbitral awards, the participation of arbitration in judicial constitutionalism, and the specifics of the organizational and functional activity associated with the formation of permanent arbitration courts, and formulates proposals for improving the legal regulation of the arbitration sphere.
About the author
Armen Dzhagaryan – Doctor of Sciences in Law; Advisor to Judge, Russian Constitutional Court, Saint Petersburg, Russia; Olga Benedskaya – Attorney; Reporter in the International Commercial Arbitration Court and the Maritime Arbitration Commission at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.
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