CCR №3(130) 2019
Political reasoning in the decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation: analysis of the Judgment of July 14, 2015, No.21-P

The full text of the article is available only in Russian.

Abstract

This article offers a method of political and legal analysis for decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation that allows us to differentiate between political and legal arguments of the Court. Judgment of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation No.21-P, dated July 14, 2015, which contains an interpretation of the constitutional norm on the primacy of international law, was selected as the object of this research. This Judgment effectively enshrined the right of Russia, in exceptional cases, not to execute the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. This resonant Judgment demonstrates the specifics of the arguments of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation that give rise to a discussion of the admissibility of this Resolution, along with not only legal, but also political arguments when deciding. While the legal side of this issue is amenable to detailed analysis, the political reasoning of Court decisions has not been adequately investigated. The author proposes a methodology for analyzing the court’s arguments that which takes into account a number of criteria, including the substantive nature of the reasoning, the peculiarities of the abstract value categories of the court, speech, and stylistic features. In addition to the text of the judicial act itself, the objects of the study were the publications of the Chairman of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, current and former judges of the Russian Constitutional Court, representatives of the professional legal community, and the media. This analysis allows us to draw a number of conclusions regarding the features of the legitimization mechanism used by the Court in its decisions, and the proposed methodology can be applied in the future to analyze other decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

About the author:
Olga Komshukova – Lawyer, Ph.D. student, Graduate School of Political Sciences, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Citation: Komshukova O. (2019) Politicheskaya argumentatsiya v resheniyakh Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii: analiz Postanovleniya ot 14 iyulya 2015 goda No.21-P [Political reasoning in the decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation: analysis of the Judgment of July 14, 2015, No.21-P]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.28, no.3, pp.110–126. (In Russian).

References:

Blankenagel A., Levin I.G. (2015) V printsipe nel’zya, no mozhno!..: Konstitutsionnyy Sud Rossii i delo ob obyazatel’nosti resheniy Evropeyskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka [Not in principle, but you can!..: The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the case concerning the binding nature of the decisions of the ECtHR]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.24, no.5, pp.152–162. (In Russian).

Blokhin P. (2018) Sudebnaya doktrina konstitutsionnoy identichnosti: genesis, problemy, perspectivy [The judicial doctrine of constitutional identity: genesis, issues and perspectives]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.27, no.6, pp.62–81. (In Russian).

Bondar’ N., Dzhagaryan A. (2016) Pryamoe deystvie Konstitutsii: generatsiya i garantirovanie konstitutsionnym pravosudiem [The direct application of the Constitution: the making and providing guarantees by constitutional justice]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.25, no.3, pp.52–78. (In Russian).

Dzhagaryan A. (2014) Vmenennaya bezuprechnost’: resheniya Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii i pravovoe kachestvo: Otvet na stat’yu A.Petrova [Temporary perfection: decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and legal quality. Reply to A.Petrov’s article]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.23, no.2, pp.111–124. (In Russian).

Fallon R.H., Jr. (2018) Law and Legitimacy in the Supreme Court. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Filatova M.A. (2016) Sootnoshenie pravoporyadkov i ierarkhiya mezhdunarodnykh norm: novye voprosy i podkhody k ikh resheniyu v praktike Konstititsionnogo Suda Rossii [Relations of legal orders and hierarchy of international and national norms: new issues and solutions in the Russian Constitutional Court’s case-law]. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, vol.6, no.3, pp.88–100. (In Russian).

Knyazev S.D. (2016) Obyazatel’nost’ postanovleniy ESPCh v pravovoy sisteme Rossii (na osnove praktiki Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii) [Executive force of the ECtHR judgements in a legal system of the Russian Federation (on the basis of the practice of the Constitutional Court)]. Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, no.12, pp.5–17. (In Russian).

Kozhemyakin E.A. (2011) Yuridicheskiy diskurs kak kul’turnyy fenomen: struktura i smysloobrazovanie [Legal discourse as a cultural phenomenon: structure and meaning]. Yurislingvistika: Pravo kak diskurs, tekst i slovo, no.1, pp.131−145. (In Russian).

Lumer C. (2003) Interpreting arguments: Proceedings of the 5-th Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation, Amsterdam: SicSat, pp.715–719.

Mavrin S.P. (2015) Resheniya Evropeyskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka v pravovoy sisteme Rossii [Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the legal system of Russia]. Zhurnal konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya, no.6, pp.1–6. (In Russian).

Medushevskiy A.N. (ed.) (2014). Konstitutsionnye printsipy i puti ikh realizatsii: rossiyskiy kontekst: Analiticheskiy doklad [Constitutional principles and ways to implement them: the Russian context. Analytical report], Moscow: Institut Prava i Publichnoy Politiki. (In Russian).

Medushevsky A.N. (2011) Konstitutsionnyy kontrol’ i politicheskiy vybor v obshchestvakh perekhodnogo tipa: k probleme legitimnosti sudebnykh resheniy na postsovetskom prostranstve [Constitutional control and political choice in transitional societies: to the problem of the legitimacy of judicial decisions in the post-Soviet space]. Vestnik Konstitutsionnogo soveta Respubliki Kazakhstan, no.18, pp.49–64. (In Russian).

Medushevsky A.N. (2014) Rossiyskaya pravovaya traditsiya – opora ili pregrada?: Doklad i obsuzhdenie [The Russian Legal Tradition – the Groundwork or Obstruction? Report and discussion], Moscow: Fond «Liberal’naya Missiya». (In Russian).

Medushevsky A.N. (2015) Konstitutsionnoe pravosudie kak politicheskiy institut v sisteme razdeleniya vlastey [Constitutional justice as a political institution in the separation of powers]. In: Politicheskie sochineniya: pravo i vlast’ v usloviyakh sotsial’nykh transformatsiy [Political writings: law and power under the conditions of social transformations], Moscow, Saint Petersburg: Tsentr gumanitarnykh initsiativ; Universitetskaya kniga, pp.252–285. (In Russian).

Mikirtumov I.B. (2015) Argumentatsiya i legitimnost’: delo Markina [Argumentation and legitimacy: Markin’s case]. РАЦИО.ru, no.15, pp.97–133. (In Russian).

Morshchakova T. (2017) O nekotorykh aktual’nykh problemakh rossiyskogo konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya [Some actual issues of constitutional justice development in Russia]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.26, no.3, pp.117–124. (In Russian).

Mrozek A., Sledzinska-Simon A. (2017) Sravnitel’nyy vzglyad na pol’skiy konstitutsionnyy krizis: legitimnost’ konstitutsionnykh sudov i printsip verkhovenstva prava [On the legitimacy of constitutional courts and the rule of law in a comparative view on the Polish constitutional crisis]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.26, no.1, pp.64–79. (In Russian).

Petrov A. (2014) Pravovoe kachestvo resheniy Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii: postanovka voprosa i nekhotorye prakticheskie problemy [Legal quality of decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation: formulation of the questions and some practical issues]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.23, no.2, pp.95–110. (In Russian).

Pye L.W. (1993) Political communication. In: Bogdanor V. (ed.) The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Science, 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.443–445.

Rekhtina I.V. (2017) Izmenenie poryadka ispolneniya aktov Evropeyskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka v svyazi s prinyatiem Postanovleniya Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 14 iyulya 2015 goda No.21-P [Amendment of procedure of the European Court judgment enforcement connected to adoption of Judgment of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, dated July 14, 2015 No.21-P]. Rossiyskiy sud’ya, no.6, pp.50–53. (In Russian).

Soboleva A.K. (2002) Topicheskaya yurisprudentsiya [Topical jurisprudence], Moscow, Dobrosvet. (In Russian).

Soboleva A.K. (2009) Tsennostnye orientiry sudebnogo resheniya: Valeriy Dmitrievich Zor’kin protiv Tamary Georgievny Morshchakovoy [Values of judgment: Valery Dmitrievich Zor’kin versus Tamara Georgievna Morshchakova]. Novaya yustitsiya, no.1, pp.5–17. (In Russian).

Troitskaya A.A., Khramova T.M. (2016) Ispol’zovanie organami konstitutsionnogo kontrolya zarubezhnogo opyta [Utilization of foreign experience by bodies of constitutional control]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, no.8, pp.5–22. (In Russian).

Troitskaya A., Khramova T. (2018) Osnovy osnov: ekspressivnyy i funktsional’nyy potentsial konstitutsionnykh ustremleniy [Constitutional cornerstones: expressive and functional potential of constitutional aspirations]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.27, no.1, pp.54–79. (In Russian).

Zor’kin V.D. (2005) Vystuplenie na VIII Mezhdunarodnom forume po konstitutsionnomu pravosudiyu 9–10 dekabrya 2005 goda “Implementatsiya resheniy Evropeyskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka v praktike konstitutsionnykh sudov stran Evropy” [Speech at the VIII International Forum on Constitutional Justice, December 9–10, 2005 “Implementation of the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the practice of the constitutional courts of European countries”]. Available at: http://www.ksrf.ru/ru/News/Speech/Pages/ViewItem.aspx?ParamId=16 (accessed: 01.05.2019). (In Russian).

Zor’kin V.D. (2010) Predel ustupchivosti [Limits of acquiescence]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, Federal issue, no.246, 29 October. Available at: https://rg.ru/2010/10/29/zorkin.html (accessed: 01.05.2019). (In Russian).

Zor’kin V.D. (2015) Rossiya i Strasburg: Problemy realizatsii Konventsii o pravakh cheloveka [Russia and Strasbourg. Problems of implementation of the Convention on Human Rights]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, Federal issue, no.238, 22 October. Available at: https://rg.ru/2015/10/21/zorkin.html (accessed: 01.05.2019). (In Russian).

Issue articles