CCR №4(131) 2019
The case of traditional hunting, or The first experience of protection of the rights of indigenous peoples in the Russian Constitutional Court

Download article

 

The full text of the article is available only in Russian.

Abstract

The Russian Constitutional Court’s Judgment (Postanovlenie) of May 28, 2019 No.21-P on traditional hunting is analysed in the paper. This decision for the first time protects the rights of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East. The author reveals the features and constitutional status of these peoples, describes the reality of respect for their rights in Russia. The importance of the protection of these rights by means of constitutional justice and, above all, by using a constitutional complaint is explained. The admissibility of such complaints is justified. The special questions examined in the paper include the legal positions of the Constitutional Court on the recognition of the small indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East as a special group of indigenous minorities taking into account their environment, economy and life support systems; the right of all persons belonging to these peoples – including persons who keep the traditional way of life, and persons who do not keep it – to traditional hunting, which is the basis of their existence and identity; the legal regime of traditional hunting implementation of which is linked to the transfer of grounded preferences for indigenous peoples; on recognizing it possible for the community of these peoples to decide on the methods of conducting traditional hunting, including which of its members-hunters will lead this hunt in the interests of the community as a whole within the limits set for its use of wildlife objects. In the context of the Judgment, proposals have been formulated for improving the legislation on hunting in order to ensure the maintenance of the traditional way of life and the implementation of traditional economic activities in terms of clarifying the subjects of such hunting and specifying some of its other elements, concretization of the regime of its free exercise within the framework of hunting resources for the satisfaction of personal consumption and some other elements of this type of hunting.

About the author:
Vladimir Kryazhkov – Doctor of Sciences in Law, Professor, Public Law Disciplines Department, Higher School of Economics; Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

Citation: Kryazhkov V. (2019) Delo o traditsionnoy okhote, ili Pervyy opyt zashchity prav korennykh malochislennykh narodov v Konstitutsionnom Sude Rossii [The case of traditional hunting, or The first experience of protection of the rights of indigenous peoples in the Russian Constitutional Court]. Srav­nitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.28, no.4, pp.116–130. (In Russian).

References:

Bondar’ N.S. (2013) Tsennost’ Konstitutsii Rossii kak yuridicheskogo akta i sotsiokul’turnogo yavleniya (k 20-letnemu yubileyu) [The importance of the Russian Constitution as a juridical act and a sociocultural phenomenon (on the 20th anniversary)]. Zhurnal konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya, vol.36, no.6, pp.13–24. (In Russian).

Britskaya T. (2016) “My ostalis’ bez oleney, i o nas zabyli” [“We had been left without deer and we became forgotten”]. Novaya gazeta, 5 October. (In Russian).

Britskaya T. (2019) Dokazyvayte saami [Prove saami]. Novaya gazeta, 24 May. (In Russian).

Kharyuchi S.N. (2006) Razvitie zakonodatel’stva o zashchite prav korennykh malochislennykh narodov v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Development of the legislation on protection of the rights of indigenous small people of the Russian Federation]. Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, no.7, pp.13–22. (In Russian).

Klokov K.B. (1997) Traditsionnoe prirodopol’zovanie narodov Severa: kontseptsiya sokhraneniya i razvitiya v sovremennykh usloviyakh [Traditional nature management of the peoples of the North: the concept of preservation and development in modern conditions], Saint Petersburg: Izdatel’stvo SPbGU. (In Russian).

Kotin M., Ragozin L., Golunov I., Dmitriev A. (2008) Vozvrashchenie pervorodstva [Return of birthright]. Russkiy Newsweek, no.3, pp.16–21. (In Russian).

Kryazhkov V.A. (2010) Korennye malochislennye narody Severa v rossiyskom prave [Indigenous peoples of the North in Russian law], Moscow: Norma. (In Russian).

Kryazhkov V.A. (2016) Pravo korennykh malochislennykh narodov na tra­ditsionnoe prirodopol’zovanie (na primere okhoty) [The right of indigenous peoples to traditional lands (on the example of hunting)]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, no.11, pp.32–42. (In Russian).

Kryazhkov V.A. (2018) Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii o pravakh korennykh malochislennykh narodov: namereniya i real’nost’ [Constitution of the Russian Federation on the rights of indigenous peoples: intentions and reality]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, no.12, pp.71–82. (In Russian).

Kryazhkov V.A. (ed.) (2013) Status korennykh malochislennykh narodov Rossii. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye akty i rossiyskoe zakonodatel’stvo [The status of indigenous peoples of Russia. International legal acts and Russian legislation], in 2 vols., Moscow; Salekhard: Assotsiatsiya korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka Rossiyskoy Federatsii. (In Russian).

Kryazhkov V.A., Kryazhkova O.N. (2005) Pravovye pozitsii Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii v ego interpretatsii [The legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in its interpretation]. Gosudarstvo i parvo, no.11, pp.13–21. (In Russian).

Limanzo A.G. (2013) Obespechenie prava korennykh malochislennykh na­rodov na prioritetnyy dostup k okhotnich’im ugod’yam i resursam [Ensuring the right of indigenous peoples to priority access to hunting lands and resources]. In: Shtyrov V.A. (ed.) Sovremennoe sostoyanie i puti razvitiya korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The current state and ways of the development of small indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation], 2nd ed., Moscow: Sovet Federatsii, pp.257–265. (In Russian).

Novikova N.I. (2011) Kul’turno-tsennostnye i pravovye vzaimodeystviya korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa i neftegazovykh korporatsiy v Rossiyskoy Federatsii (1990–2000-e gg.): Avtoreferat dis. … d-ra ist. nauk [Cultural and legal interactions of the indigenous minorities of the North and oil and gas corporations in the Russian Federation (1990–2000): Abstract of a dissertation… doctor of historical science], Moscow. (In Russian).

Novikova N.I. (2014) Okhotniki i neftyaniki: Issledovanie po yuridicheskoy antropologii [Hunters and oilmen. Study on legal anthropology], Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).

Tishkov V.A. (ed.) (2004) Sovremennoe polozhenie i perspektivy razvitiya malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka: Nezavisimyy ekspertnyy doklad [The current situation and development prospects of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East: Independent Expert Report], Moscow. (In Russian).

Tumusova A.N. (2019) Konstitutsionno-ekonomicheskiy aspect prav koren­nykh malochislennykh narodov Respubliki Sakha (Yakutiya) [The constitutional-economic aspect of the rights of indigenous peoples of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia)]. In: Ezhegodnik konstitutsionnoy ekonomiki [Annual of the Constitutional Economics], Moscow: LUM, pp.468–475. (In Russian).

Vinogradova S.N. (2012) Korennye malochislennye narody Severa: sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie aspekty gosudarstvennoy politiki [Indigenous peoples of the North: socio-economic aspects of public policy], Apatity: Izdatel’stvo Kol’skogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN. (In Russian).

Yakel’ Yu.Ya. (2013) Sudebnaya zashchita prav korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Judicial protection of the rights of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation]. In: Shtyrov V.A. (ed.) Sovremennoe sostoyanie i puti razvitiya korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The current state and ways of the development of small indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation], 2nd ed., Moscow: Sovet Federatsii, pp.129–142. (In Russian).

Zadorin M.Yu. (2015) Konstitutsionnoe pravo korennykh malochislennykh narodov na razvitie: Dis. … kand. yurid. nauk [Constitutional right of indigenous minorities to development: Cand. in law sci. diss.], Moscow. (In Russian).

Issue articles