CCR №1 (140) 2021
The concept of types of popular representation

The full text of the article is available only in Russian.

Abstract

Democracy has many appearances. The principle of democracy is implemented in republics as well as monarchies, unitary states and federations. This article proposes a new dimension of democracy — the type of popular representation — which depends on the electoral system used in national parliamentary elections. The ownership of power in the state by the people is ensured by the functioning of a representative body elected by citizens and having exclusive authority to pass laws that are binding on all. In addition, the parliament participates in the formation of bodies of other branches of power and approves the budget. Thus, research into the manifestations of the institution of popular representation is important not only for countries with a parliamentary government, but also for all other states. The direct dependence of the composition of the legislature on the will of the people guarantees that the actions of the state are subordinated to the interests of this entity. An electoral system is used to identify this will of the people. However, the significance of this legal mechanism is not limited to the role of a guide between votes and parliamentary mandates alone. The electoral system is a “double-edged” instrument that can influence the exercise of power by the people. The purpose of this article is to analyse this influence and demonstrate the existence of three types of popular representation formed by different categories of electoral systems. Types of people’s representation arise as a result of the repeated application of a certain mechanism and the following establishment of the party composition of the parliament and party structure of the government. The established type of people’s representation is characterised by the varying degree of effectiveness of political parties in expressing and realising the interests of the people. In addition, the implementation of the principle of alternation of power and the functioning of the checks and balances are also dependent on the electoral system used. This article formulates a concept that makes it possible to differentiate the way democracy is developed in the state and to consider transparently the constitutional and legal consequences of the choice of the electoral system.

About the author:
Dmitry Kireev — Assistant to a State Duma Deputy, Moscow, Russia

Citation: Kireev D. (2021) Kontseptsiya vidov narodnogo predstavitel’stva [The concept of types of popular representation]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.30, no.1, pp.17–46. (In Russian).

References

Aranovskiy K.V. (2012) Razdelenie vlastey kak uslovie konstitutsionnoy demokratii [Separation of powers as a condition of constitutional democracy]. Zhurnal konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya, no.6, pp.16–22. (In Russian).

Astafichev P.A. (2006) Narodnoe predstavitel’stvo v sovremennoy Rossii: problemy teorii i pravovogo regulirovaniya: Dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk [Popular representation in contemporary Russia: problems of theory and legal regulation: Dr. in law sci. diss.], Moscow. (In Russian).

Avak’yan S.A. (2019) Narodnoe predstavitel’stvo i parlamentarism [Representation of the people and parliamentarism]. Vestnik Universiteta imeni O.E.Kutafina, no.9, pp.37–48. (In Russian).

Avak’yan S.A. (2014) Publichnaya vlast’ i predstavitel’stvo: organizatsionnye, sotsial’nye i personalist­skie nachala (konstitutsionno-pravovoy vzglyad) [Public power and representation: organizational, social and personalistics fundamentals (constitutional-law viewpoint)]. Konstitutsionnoe i muni­tsipal’noe pravo, no.11, pp.20–30. (In Russian).

Avtonomov A.S. (2007) Partii i partiynye sistemy v Rossii i v mire: istoriya i sovremennost’ [Parties and party systems in Russia and around the world: history and modernity]. Gosudarstvennaya vlast’ i mestnoe samoupravlenie, no.8, pp.31–39. (In Russian).

Baker A., Scheiner E. (2007) Electoral System Effects and Ruling Party Dominance in Japan: A Counterfactual Simulation Based on Adaptive Parties. Electoral Studies, vol.26, no.2. pp.477–491.

Belov S.A. (2003) Izbiratel’naya sistema kak pravovoy institut: Dis. … kand. yurid. nauk [Electoral system as a legal institution: Сand. in law sci. diss.], Saint-Petersburg. (In Russian).

Bondar’ N., Dzhagaryan A. (2016) Pryamoe deystvie konstitutsii: generatsiya i garantirovanie konstitutsionnym pravosudiem [The direct application of the Constitution: the making and providing guarantees by constitutional justice]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.25, no.3, pp.52–78. (In Russian).

Bondar’ N.S. (2011) Sudebnyy konstitutsionalizm v Rossii v svete konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya [Judicial constitutionalism in Russia in the light of constitutional justice], Moscow: Norma. (In Russian).

Carey J. (1997) Institutional Design and Party Systems. In: Diamond L., Plattner M.F., Chu Yun-han, Tien Hung-mao (eds.) Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp.67–92.

Chirkin V.E. (ed.) (2011) Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe pravo: uchebnoe posobie [Comparative constitutional law: a study guide], Moscow: Izdatel’skiy dom “Yurisprudentsiya”. (In Russian).

Curtis G.L. (1999) The Logic of Japanese Politics: Leaders, Institutions, and the Limits of Change, New York: Columbia University Press.

Dement’ev V.A. (2019) Proportsional’naya izbiratel’naya sistema v mekhanizme munitsipal’­nykh vyborov: monografiya [Proportional election system in the municipal election mechanism: a monograph], Dimitrovgrad: Izdatel’skiy tsentr UNIPress. (In Russian).

Duverger M. (1970) Institutions politiques et droit constitutionnel, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Dyuverzhe M. (2014) Politicheskie instituty i konstitutsionnoe pravo [Political institutions and constitutional law]. In: Bogdanova N.A., Shustrov D.G. (eds.) Khrestomatiya po konstitutsionnomu pravu: uchebnoe posobie. Tom III [Constitutional law anthology: a study guide. Vol.3], Saint-Petersburg: Alef-Press, pp.590–611. (In Russian).

Dyuverzhe M. (2018) Politicheskie partii [Political parties], L.A.Zimina (transl.), Moscow: Akademicheskiy proekt. (In Russian).

Ellinek G. (2004) Obshchee uchenie o gosudarstve [General theory of the state], Saint-Petersburg: Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press. (In Russian).

Fadeev V.I., Varlen M.V. (2008) Deputatskiy mandat v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: konstitutsionno-pravovye osnovy: uchebnoe posobie [The deputy mandate in the Russian Federation: constitutional law framework: a study guide], Moscow: NORMA. (In Russian).

Farrell D.M., McAllister I. (2006) The Australian Electoral System: Origins, Variations and Consequences, Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

Gallagher M. (2005) Ireland: The Discreet Charm of PR-STV. In: Gallagher M., Mitchel P. (eds.) The Politics of the Electoral System, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, pp.511–534.

Gutorova A.N. (2009) Politicheskie partii v sisteme narodnogo predstavitel’stva: Dis. … kand. yurid. nauk [Political parties in the popular representation system: Сand. in law sci. diss.], Oryol. (In Russian).

Jain P.C. (1993) A New Political Era in Japan: The 1993 Election. Asian Survey, vol.33, no.11, pp.1071–1082.

Kenenova I.P. (2018) Reformy izbiratel’nykh system kak vestniki obnovleniya politicheskikh tendentsiy [Electoral system reforms as signs of political tendencies update]. Konstitutsionnoe i muni­tsipal’noe pravo, no.2, pp.72–78. (In Russian).

Kireev D.A. (2019) Iskazheniya proportsional’nosti v izbiratel’nykh sistemakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii i Federativnoy Respubliki Germaniya [Distortion of proportionality in the electoral systems of the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 11: Pravo, no.4, pp.92–105. (In Russian).

Kireev D.A. (2020) Narodnoe predstavitel’stvo v usloviyakh mazhoritarnoy izbiratel’noy sistemy [Popular representation in conditions of the majoritarian voting system]. Konstitutsionnoe i muni­tsipal’noe pravo, no.7, pp.49–54. (In Russian).

Korkunov N.V. (2016) Proportsional’nye vybory. Izbiratel’noe pravo dlya vsekh i ego ograniche­niya [Proportional election. The right to vote for all and its limitations], Moscow: Lenand. (In Russian).

Liff A.P., Maede K. (2019) Electoral Incentives, Policy Compromise, and Coalition Durability: Japan’s LDP–Komeito Government in a Mixed Electoral System. Japanese Journal of Political Science, vol.20, no.1, pp.53–73.

Lijphart A. (2012) Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries, New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.

Lou S. (1908) Gosudarstvennyy stroy Anglii [The state system of England], V.I.Braudo (transl.), Saint-Petersburg: Tipografiya tovarishchestva “Obshchestvennaya pol’za”. (In Russian).

Lyubarev A.E. (2016) Izbiratel’nye sistemy. Rossiyskiy i mirovoy opyt [Electoral systems. Russian and international practice], Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. (In Russian).

Meyer G. (1906) Izbiratel’noe pravo [Electoral law], Moscow: Izdanie V.M.Sablina. (In Russian).

Mishin A.A. (2013) Konstitutsionnoe (gosudarstvennoe) pravo zarubezhnykh stran: uchebnik dlya vuzov [Constitutional (state) law of foreign countries: a study guide for universities], Moscow: Statut. (In Russian).

Von Münch I. (1999) A German Perspective on Legal and Political Problems of Coalition Governments. Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, vol.30, no 1, pp.65–74.

Nudnenko L.A., Tkhabisimova L.A. (2015) Vliyanie izbiratel’noy sistemy na realizatsiyu printsipa vseobshchego izbiratel’nogo prava v Rossii [The impact of the electoral system on the implementation of the principle of universal suffrage in the Russian Federation]. Aktual’nye problemy rossiy­skogo prava, no.7, pp.26–31. (In Russian).

Ocheret’ko E.A. (2011) K voprosu o probleme klassifikatsii izbiratel’nykh sistem [Problems of the classification of the election systems]. Sovremennoe obshchestvo i pravo, no.2, pp.59–70. (In Russian).

Oleynik I.I. (2019) Parlamentarism v sisteme narodnogo predstavitel’stva [Parliamentarism in the popular representation system]. Elektronnoe prilozhenie k “Rossiyskomu yuridicheskomu zhurnalu”, no.1, pp.11–22. (In Russian).

Powell G.B. (2000) Elections as Instruments of Democracy: Majoritarian and Proportional Visions, New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.

Rae D.W. (1971) The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.

Reed S.R., Thies M.F. (2001) The Consequences of Electoral Reform in Japan. In: Shugart M.S., Wattenberg M.P. (eds.) Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds? Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, pp.380–403.

Rumyantsev A. (2010) “Izbytochnye” mandaty — 2: regional’naya pobeda printsipa proportsional’nosti [“Excess” mandates — 2: regional victory of the proportionality principle]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.19, no.6, pp.101–106. (In Russian).

Salmin A.M. (2004) Izbiratel’nye sistemy i partii: vybor vyborov [Electoral systems and parties: election choices]. Politiya, no.1, pp.12–24. (In Russian).

Sartori Dzh. (2004) Partii i partiynye sistemy: ramki analiza [Parties and party systems: a framework for analysis]. In: Anokhina N.V., Meleshkina E.Yu. (eds.) Partii i vybory: khrestomatiya. Chast’ 1 [Parties and elections: an anthology. Part 1], Moscow: Institut nauchnoy informatsii po obshchestvennym naukam, pp.14–26. (In Russian).

Shemelin A.V., Nikonova N.A. (2012) Izbiratel’naya sistema kak instrument vozdeystviya na protsessy demokraticheskikh preobrazovaniy v stranakh Latinskoy Ameriki [The electoral system as a tool to influence the democratic transformation processes in Latin America]. Mezhdunarodnoe publich­noe i chastnoe pravo, no.5, pp.33–36. (In Russian).

Shiratori R. (1995) The Politics of Electoral Reform in Japan. International Political Science Review, vol.16, no.1, pp.79–94.

Shishelina L.N. (2018) Chetvyortoe pravitel’stvo Victora Orbana [Fourth government of Victor Orban]. Nauchno-analiticheskiy vestnik Instituta Evropy RAN, no.4, pp.84–88. (In Russian).

Sidorov V.V. (2013) Logika formirovaniya predvybornykh koalitsiy v parlamentskikh demokratiyakh [The logic of forming electoral coalitions in parliamentary democracies]. Uchyonye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki, no.1, pp.233–242. (In Russian).

Taagepera R., Shugart M.S. (1989) Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems, New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.

Tóka G. (2014) Constitutional Principles and Electoral Democracy in Hungary. In: Bos E., Pócza K. (eds.) Constitution Building in Consolidated Democracies: A New Beginning or Decay of a Political System? Baden-Baden: Nomos, pp.311–329.

Troitskaya A. (2011) Parlamentskaya oppozitsiya v sisteme razdeleniya vlastey: organizatsionnye garantii i dostupnye instrumenty kontrolya [Parliamentary opposition in the system of the separation of powers: institutional guarantees and available tools of control]. Sravnitel’noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, vol.20, no.1, pp.67–81. (In Russian).

Issue articles